NON-INVASIVE MONITORING OF STRESS IN FEMALES CRESTED MACAQUES (Macaca nigra): COMPARISON OF GLUCOCORTICOID LEVELS DURING CYCLING, PREGNANCY, AND LACTATION

Gholib Gholib, Muhammad Agil, Iman Supriatna, Bambang Purwantara, Triva Murtina Lubis, Mulyadi Adam, Azhar Azhar, Antje Engelhardt

Abstract


For female, pregnancy and lactation  are  period with  high energy expenditure and may increase levels of stress hormone. The present study was conducted to compare the levels of glucocorticoid in females of crested macaques during cycling, pregnancy, and lactation periods. Fecal samples were collected from 12 females of crested macaques living in the Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Fecal samples were assayed by an enzyme immunoassay technique for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM).  The results showed that levels of glucocorticoid were significantly influence by female reproductive status (cycling, pregnancy, and lactation)(p<0.05). Levels of fGCM in pregnant females were significantly higher compared to the levels of fGCM in cycling and lactation females (p<0.05). Whereas, levels of fGCM between cycling females and lactation females were not significantly different (p>0.05). Mean (±SEM) of the absolute levels of glucocorticoid in cycling, pregnant, and lactation females were 388.19±60.59 ng/g, 814.20±139.12 ng/g, and 403.13±39.34 ng/g, respectively. In conclusion, female reproductive status influences the levels of fGCM.


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References


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