EXPLORATION OF TEACHER TALK IN SAUDI EFL SECONDARY SCHOOLS’ CONTEXTS

Mohammed Alanazi, Jacquie Widin

Abstract


This paper presents initial findings from a study of teacher talk (TT) in English Language secondary school classes in Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the role of TT in English language lessons, it also investigates how TT is affected by cultural and educational factors and approaches to teaching and whether TT hinders or helps students’ language outputs. The study takes a socio-cultural perspective draws on a framework developed by Cullen (2002). The data was gathered through classroom observations and recordings of 18 EFL secondary teachers in Hafr Albatin (a region in Saudi Arabia) and interviews with the teachers. This study has identified that the IRF (initiation, response, feedback) is a common sequence in Saudi EFL classroom; the analysis focuses on the F –move and uses Cullen’s analytical approach to make a distinction between the discoursal and evaluative roles. This paper will present an overview of the way teacher talk takes place in the Saudi secondary classrooms and will show examples of where teacher talk promotes dialogue and in contrast, where teachers restrict opportunities for student output. The study makes some recommendations that may help teachers improve pedagogical talk in their classrooms also, and consequently improves students’ conversational skills. Due to the need to develop high proficiency among students, this study supports the argument that TT is one of the key issues that help students developing high proficiency.


Keywords


Teacher talk; F-moves discoursal function; F-moves evaluative function; Saudi Arabia English teaching context

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alanazi, S. (2011). The responsibility of secondary school teachers in the development of educational dialogue skills of students in the region of Hafr al-Batin from the perspective of principals and teachers. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Imam Mohammed Bin Saud University, Riyadh.

Al-Ghamdi, M. (2015). Questioning constructs or de- ters students' talk in EFL classrooms: analysis of Saudi English classrooms. Retrieved from academia: http://www.academia.edu/4659596/QUESTIONING_CONSTRUCTS_OR_DE_TERS_STUDENTS_TALK_IN_EFL_CLASS_ROOMS_ANALYSIS_OF_SAUDI_ENGLISH_CLASSROOMS

Al-Otaibi, S. (2004). The effect of positive teacher talk on students' performance, interaction & attitudes: A case study of female students at the college of languages & translation at King Saud University. Unpublished master thesis, King Saud University. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Alresheed, S. (2008). EFL program of the secondary schools in Qassim region (Saudi Arabia): Problems, causes and solutions. Newcastle University Journal. Retrieved from http://faculty.mu.edu.sa/download.php?fid=42716

Al-Seghayer, K. (2014). The four most common constraints affecting English teaching in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of English Linguistics, 4(5), 17-26.

Al-Seghayer, K. (2013). Teach us English but without its cultural values. Saudi Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentid=20130129151084

Cullen, R. (2002). Supportive teacher talk: the importance of the F‐move. ELT Journal, 56(2), 117-127.

Fareh, S. (2010). Challenges of teaching English in the Arab world: Why can’t EFL programs deliver as expected?’ Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2),3600-4.

Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2006). Input, interaction and output: An overview. AILA Review, 19(1), 3-17.

Gibbons, P. (2002). Classroom talk: Creating contexts for language learning. In P. Gibbons (Ed.). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning: Teaching second language learners in the mainstream classroom (pp. 14- 38). Portsmouth, N. H.: Heinemann.

Gibbons, P. (2009). English learners, academic literacy, and thinking. Learning in the challenge zone. Portsmouth, N. H.: Heinemann.

Hamad, M. (2013). Factors negatively affect speaking skills at Saudi colleges for girls in the south. English Language Teaching, 6(12), 87-97.

Inceçay, G. (2010). The role of teacher talk in young learners‟ language process. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 277–281.

Khan, M. R. (2015). Analyzing the relationship between L2 motivational selves and L2 achievement: A Saudi perspective. International Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(1), 68-75.

Liton, H. A. (2013). EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations of English language courses as EFL in Saudi universities. International Journal of Instruction, 6(2), 19-34.

Mercer, N. (2002) Developing dialogues. In G. Wells & G. Claxton (Eds.). Learning for life in the 21st century: Sociocultural perspectives on the future of education. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Mercer, N. (2008a). Developing dialogues. In G. Wells & G. Claxton (Eds.). Learning for life in the 21st century: Sociocultural perspectives on the future of education. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470753545.ch11/summary/

Mercer, N. (2008b) The seeds of time: Why classroom dialogue needs a temporal analysis. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17(1), 33-59.

Negueruela, E. (2008). Revolutionary pedagogies: Learning that leads (to) second language development. In J. P. Lantolf & M. E. Poehner (Eds.). Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages (189-227). London: Equinox.

Nunan, D., & Richards, J. C. (1990). Second language teacher education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ryan, G., & H. R. Bernard. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods, 15, 85–109

Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education. (2016). General education policy. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.sa/ar/news/Pages/ministerteachtrainlauncher.aspx

Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education. (2014). Higher Education in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.sa/ar/studyaboard/King-salman-hstages/Pages/Schol-arships.aspx

Sinclair, J. M., & Brazil, D. (1985). Teacher talk. OPxford: Oxford University Press.

Thornbury, S. (1996). Teachers research teacher talk. ELT journal, 50(4), 279-289.

Van Lier, L. (2001). Constraints and resources in classroom talk: Issues of equality and symmetry. In C. N. Candlin & N. Mercer (Eds.). English language teaching in its social context (90-107). London: Routledge.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Walsh, S. (2002). Construction or obstruction: Teacher talk and learner involvement in the EFL classroom. Language Teaching Research, 6(1), 3-23.

Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd ed.), Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage Publications.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.