Eyüp Dilber


This study aims to investigate the use of Arabic cognate estağfurullah as a discourse marker in Turkish language. Estağfurullah in Turkish is mainly used by an interlocutor to show courtesy and modesty when s/he is appreciated or thanked. After examining the naturally occurring text of written data through a corpus-based qualitative research using the Turkish National Corpus (TNC), the frequency occurrences of estağfurullah, its syntactic location and functions were identified. Its distributions were analyzed through blending of one-to-one searching and sifting methods. Its query returned 234 hits in 112 different naturally occurring texts of written data. In more than half of the hits (143), it was found that estağfurullah was mostly used in the initial position of an utterance with various collocations. What is more, it was used for different interactional functions ranging from showing courtesy and modesty, statement of agreement/disagreement or religion to expressing affective states; anger and helplessness, taking an offence and face-saving act.


Estağfurullah; discourse marker; Turkish; Turkish National Corpus (TNC); collocations

Full Text:



Ädel, A. (2003). The use of meta discourse in argumentative writing by advanced learners and

native speakers of English. (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Göteborg University, Gothenburg.

Ädel, A. & Reppen, R. (2011). Corpora and discourse: The challenges of different setting. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing.

Adıgüzel, M. F. (2015). Semantic and pragmatic analysis of the Turkish discourse particle hele: A corpus-driven study in lexical profiling. Mersin Üniversitesi Dil ve Edebiyat Dergisi, 12(1), 63-92.

Andersen, G. (2001). Pragmatic markers and sociolinguistic variation: A Relevance-theoretic approach to the language of adolescents. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Aijmer, K. (2002). English discourse particles: Evidence from a corpus. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Aijmer, K. & Simon-Vandenbergen, A.-M. (2004). A model and a methodology for the study of pragmatic markers: The semantic field of expectation. Journal of Pragmatics, 36, 1781 -1805.

Babanoğlu, M. P. (2014). A corpus-based study on the use of pragmatic markers as speech like features in Turkish EFL learners’ argumentative essays. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 136, 186 -193

Bal-Gezegin, B. (2013). How do we say NO in Turkish?: A corpus based analysis of hayır and cık in Turkish. Dil ve Edebiyat Dergisi, 10(2), 53-73.

Biber, D., Conrad, S. & Reppen, R. (1998). Corpus linguistics: Investigating language structure and use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Büyükkantarcıoğlu, N. (2006). An analysis of Turkish interjections in the context of reactive idea framing. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 23(1), 19-32.

Conrad, S. (2002). Corpus linguistics approaches for discourse analysis. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 75-95.

Erdoğan, Y. (2013). Interactional functions of şey in Turkish: Evidence from spoken Turkish corpus. Dil ve Edebiyat Dergisi, 10(2), 33-52.

Lenk, U. (1998). Making discourse coherence: Functions of discourse markers in spoken English. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.

Meyer, C. F. (2002). English corpus linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mukherjee, J. (2004). The state of art in corpus linguistics: Three book-length perspectives. English Language and Linguistics, 8 (1), 103-119.

Özbek, N. (2000). Yani, işte, şey, ya: Interactional markers of Turkish. In: A. Göksel & Kerslake, C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Turkish Linguistics (pp. 393-401). Wiesbaden, Harrosowitz.

Risselada, R. & Spooren, W. (1998). Introduction: Discourse markers and coherence relations. Journal of Pragmatics, 30, 131 -133.

Ruhi, Ş. (2013). The interactional functions of tamam in spoken Turkish. Dil ve Edebiyat Dergisi, 10(2), 9-32.

Schourop, L. (1999). Tutorial: Discourse markers. Lingua, 107, 227-265.

Schiffrin, D. (1987). Discourse markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yılmaz, E. (2004). A pragmatic analysis of Turkish discourse particles: Yani, işte and şey (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). METU, Ankara.


  • There are currently no refbacks.