Joko Kusmanto


Various kinds of text analyses which apply Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) have grown more than ever before for the last ten years. SFG offers a model of grammatical analysis which is directly related to the functional use of language. Despite the wide-range application of SFG for various kinds of text analyses, SFG theory poses a significant syntactic/grammatical problem which has not been touched much at the theoretical level. In fact, the analysis of functional grammar constitutes the heart of a text analysis. Any text analysis applying SFL has to deal with this formal syntactic analysis at the beginning of the analysis prior to coming to the interpretation of the content of the text. This paper highlights the syntactic and semantic problem, i.e. the label “Complement” which appears in Mood system. Refine-tuning theoretically-inadequate parts of SFG will certainly, on the one hand, improve the reliability of the social and cultural interpretation of any text analysis applying SFG and, on the other hand, overcome any confusion in the syntactic analysis which to some extent affects the teaching of English syntactic operation and other languages like English as well.


Complement; mood system; SFG; syntactic function

Full Text:



Aarts, B. (2001). English syntax and argumentation (2nd Edition). New York: Palgrave.

DiSciullo, A. M. (Ed.). (2003). Asymmetry in grammar, Volume 1: Syntax and semantics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Eggins, S. (2004). An introduction to systemic functional linguistics (2nd Edition). New York: Continuum.

Fawcett, R. P. (2000). A theory of syntax for systemic functional linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamin.

Halliday, M. A. K., &Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar (3rd Edition). London: Arnold.

Sudaryanto. (1983). Predikat-objek dalam Bahasa Indonesia: Keselarasan pola-urutan. Jakata: Djambatan.

Verhaar, J. W. M. (1996). Asas-asas linguistik umum. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Matthiessen, C. M. I. M, Teruya, K., & Lam, M. (2010). Key terms in Systemic Functional Linguistics. London: Continuum.

Bloor, T., & Brool, M. (2004). The functional analysis of English: A Hallidayan Approach (2nd Edition). London: Arnorld.

McCarthy, A. (2008). An innocent thug? An investigation into contrasting news reports using Systemic Functional Grammar Analysis. Retrieved from


  • There are currently no refbacks.