1. Clean, Green, Ethical (CGE) Management: What Research Do We Really Need?

Graeme B Martin, Teuku Reza Ferasyi


Industries based on small ruminants are major contributors to world food supply but, in many production systems, reproductive technology is not directly relevant. In addition, there is a general need to embrace the vision for products that are ‘clean, green and ethical’ (CGE). In the concept of CGE management, the environment of the animal is used to control reproduction rather than technological tools. Nutrition is the primary factor but, rather than feeding ruminants with potential human food, we need to focus on forages with occasional ‘smart supplements’. This focus also opens up opportunities – new forages can supply energy and protein whilst improving animal health and welfare, and reducing carbon emissions.

Nutritional inputs must be accurately coordinated with reproductive events to ensure that the metabolic signals are appropriate to the stage of the reproductive process. To control the timing of reproduction, we begin with simply managing the presence of the male but then seek more precision through the greater use of ultrasound.

Finally, genetic improvement should be part of every industry strategy and it is critical in the long-term development of CGE management. Most aspects of CGE management have a strong genetic component, as evidenced by variation among genotypes, and among individuals within genotypes. For example, a combination of nutritional management with genetic improvement in the rate of muscle accumulation can accelerate sexual maturity, potentially leading to simultaneous improvements in meat production, reproductive efficiency and environmental footprint.

For each local situation, we need to introduce the various elements of the CGE package in stages, adapting the process to cover variations in genotype and in geographical and socio-economic environments. Some concepts might need further research and development for local conditions. Ultimately, CGE management is a simple and cost-effective way to improve productivity whilst safeguarding the future of the livestock industries.

Full Text:



Akkari, H., Rtibi, K., B'chir, F., Rekik, M., Darghouth, M.A. and Gharbi, M. 2014. In vitro evidence that the pastoral Artemisia campestris species exerts an anthelmintic effect on Haemonchus contortus from sheep. Veterinary Research Communications, 38: 249-255.

Athaillah, F. 1995. Kemampuan pinang sirih (Areca catechu) terhadap cacing nematoda gastro intestinal pada kambing. laporan hasil penelitian. Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh.

Kotze, A.C., O'Grady, J.O., Emms, J., Toovey, A.F., Hughes, S., Jessop, P., Bennell, M.R., Vercoe, P.E. and Revell, D.K. 2009. Exploring the anthelmintic properties of Australian native shrubs with respect to their potential role in livestock grazing systems. Parasitology, 136: 1065-1080.

Smith, T.L., Palmer, D.G., Karlsson, L.J.E., Besier, R.B. and Greeff, J.C. 2005. Biochemical differences in Merino sheep selected for resistance against gastro-intestinal nematodes and genetic and nutritional effects on faecal worm egg output. Animal Science, 81: 149-157.

Kemper, K.E., Palmer, D.G., Liu, S.M., Greeff, J.C., Bishop, S.C. and Karlsson, L.J. 2010. Reduction of faecal worm egg count, worm numbers and worm fecundity in sheep selected for worm resistance following artificial infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Veterinary Parasitology, 171: 238-246.

Banchero, G., Milton, J.T.B., Lindsay, D.R., Martin, G.B. and Quintans, G. 2015. Colostrum production in ewes: a review of the regulation mechanisms and of energy supply. Animal, 9: 831-837.

Beriajaya. 2005. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and goats in West Java, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 10(4): 293-304.

Besier, R.B. and Love, S.C.J. 2004. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes in Australia: the need for new approaches. Animal Production Science, 43, 1383-1391.

Blanc, F., Martin, G.B. and Bocquier, F. 2001. Modelling reproduction in farm animals: a review. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 13: 337-353.

Bloomfield, F.H., Oliver, M.H., Hawkins, P., Campbell, M., Phillips, D.J., Gluckman, P.D., Challis, J.R.G. and Harding, J.E. 2003. A periconceptional nutritional origin for noninfectious preterm birth. Science, 300: 606.

Durmic, Z. and Blache, D. 2012. Bioactive plants and plant products: effects on animal function, health and welfare. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 176: 150-62.

Durmic, Z., Hutton, P., Revell, D.K., Emms, J., Hughes, S. and Vercoe, P.E. 2010. In vitro fermentative traits of Australian woody perennial plant species that may be considered as potential sources of feed for grazing ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 160: 98-109.

Eisler, M.C., Lee, M.R.F., Tarlton, J.F., Martin, G.B., Beddington, J., Dungait, J.A.J., Greathead, H., Liu, J., Mathew, S., Miller, H., Misselbrook, T., Murray, P., Vinod, V.K., van Saun, R. & Winter, M. 2014. Steps to sustainable livestock. Nature (London), 507: 32-34.

FAO. 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow – Environmental Issues and Options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Ferasyi, T.R., Akmal, M., Budiman, H., Razali, Azhari, Wahyuni, S., Amiruddin, Anwar, Pamungkas, F.A., Nasution, S. and Barus, R.A. 2015. Potency of combination of palm kernel meal and katuk leaf powder to improve the production performance of Peranakan Etawa (PE) goat: toward a strategy for quality control of meat using “CGE” Concept. Procedia Food Science, 3: 389-395.

Ferasyi, T.R., Barrett, P.H.R., Blache, D. and Martin, G.B. 2016. Modeling the male reproductive endocrine axis – potential role for a delay mechanism in the inhibitory action of gonadal steroids on GnRH pulse frequency. Endocrinology (online), DOI: 10.1210/en.2015-1913.

González de Bulnes, A., Santiago Moreno, J., López Sebastián, A. 1998. Estimation of fetal development in Manchega dairy ewes by transrectal ultrasonographic measurements. Small Ruminant Research, 27: 243-250.

Goodwin, N. and Norton, B.W. 2004. Improving doe nutrition immediately prior to kidding increases kid survival. Proceedings of the Australian Society for Animal Production, 25: 233.

Goursaud, A.P. and Nowak, R. 1999. Colostrum mediates the development of mother preference by the new born lamb. Physiology and Behavior, 67: 49-56.

Hernandez, C.E., Matthews, L.R., Oliver, M.H., Bloomfield, F.H. and Harding, J.E. 2010. Effects of sex, litter size and periconceptional ewe nutrition on offspring behavioural and physiological response to isolation. Physiology and Behavior, 101: 588-594.

Kenyon, P.R., Morris, S.T., Perkins, N.R. and West, D.M. 2004. Hogget mating use in New Zealand – a survey. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Animal Production, 64: 217-22.

Kenyon, P.R., van der Linden, D.S., West, D.M. and Morris, S.T. 2011. The effect of breeding hoggets on lifetime performance. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 54: 321-330.

Kenyon, P.R., Thompson, A.N. & Morris, S.T. 2014. Breeding ewe lambs successfully to improve lifetime performance. Small Ruminant Research, 118: 2-15.

Makkar, H.P.S., Francis, G. and Becker, K. 2007. Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems. Animal, 1: 1371-1391.

Martin, C., Morgavi, D.P. and Doreau, M. 2010. Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale. Animal, 4: 351-365.

Martin, G.B. 1995. Reproductive research on farm animals for Australia – some long-distance goals. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 7: 967-982.

Martin, G.B. 2014. An Australasian perspective on the role of reproductive technologies in world food production. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 752, 181-197.

Martin, G.B. and Greeff, J.C. 2011. Genetic frontiers in the development of ‘clean, green and ethical’ management systems for the extensive sheep industry. Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 19: 143-150.

Martin, G.B., Milton, J.T.B., Davidson, R.H., Banchero Hunzicker, G.E., Lindsay, D.R. and Blache, D. 2004. Natural methods of increasing reproductive efficiency in sheep and goats. Animal Reproduction Science, 82-83: 231-246.

Martin, G.B., Blache, D. and Williams, I.H. 2008. The costs of reproduction. In: Rauw, W.M. (Ed.), Resource allocation theory applied to farm animals. CABI Publishing Oxford, pp. 169-191.

Martin, G.B., Durmic, Z., Kenyon, P.R., Vercoe, P.E. 2009. Landcorp Lecture: ‘Clean, green and ethical’ animal reproduction: extension to sheep and dairy systems in New Zealand. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Animal Production, 69: 140-147.

Martin, G.B., Blache, D., Miller, D.W. and Vercoe, P.E. 2010. Interactions between nutrition and reproduction in the management of the mature male ruminant. Animal, 4: 1214-1226.

Min, B.R., Barry, T.N., Attwood, G.T. and McNabb, W.C. 2003. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 103: 3-19.

Nowak, R. 1996. Neonatal survival: contributions from behavioural studies in sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 49: 61-72.

Razali, R., Azhari, A., Novita, A., Ferasyi, T.R., Ridwan, R. and Munandar, A. 2014. Potensi suspensi dan ekstrak daun katuk sebagai antelmintik terhadap nematoda gastrointestinal pada ternak kambing. Jurnal Kedokteran Hewan, 8(2): 120-123.

Revell, D.K., Durmic, Z., Bennell, M., Sweeney, G.C. and Vercoe, P.E. 2008. The in situ use of plant mixtures including native shrubs in Australian grazing systems: the potential to capitalise on plant diversity for livestock health and productivity. In: Skaife, J.F. and Vercoe, P.E. (Eds), Harvesting Knowledge, Pharming Opportunities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 36-49.

Rosales Nieto, C.A., Ferguson, M.B., Macleay, C.A., Briegel, J.R., Martin, G.B. and Thompson, A.N. 2013a. Selection for superior growth advances the onset of puberty and increases reproductive performance in ewe lambs. Animal, 7: 990-997.

Rosales Nieto, C.A., Ferguson, M.B., Macleay, C.A., Briegel, J.R., Wood, D.A., Martin, G.B. and Thompson, A.N. 2013b. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months. Theriogenology, 80: 427-435.

Rosales Nieto, C.A., Ferguson, M.B., Thompson, H., Briegel, J.R., Macleay, C.A., Martin, G.B. & Thompson, A.N. 2014. Relationships among puberty, muscle and fat, and liveweight gain during mating in young female sheep. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 50: 637-642.

Scaramuzzi, R.J., Baird, D.T., Campbell, B.K., Driancourt, M.-A., Dupont, J., Fortune, J.E., Gilchrist, R.B., Martin, G.B., McNatty, K.P., McNeilly, A.S., Monget, P., Monniaux, D., Viñoles Gil, C. and Webb, R. 2011. Regulation of folliculogenesis and the determination of ovulation rate in ruminants. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 23: 444-467.

Schoeman, S.J., de Wet, R., Botha, M.A. and van der Merwe, C.A. 1995. Comparative assessment of biological efficiency of crossbred lambs from two Composite lines and Dorper sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 16: 61-67.

Thompson, J.G. 2006 The impact of nutrition of the cumulus oocyte complex and embryo on subsequent development in ruminants. Journal of Reproduction and Development, 52: 169-175.

Viñoles, C., Meikle, A. and Martin, G.B. 2009. Short-term nutritional treatments grazing legumes or feeding concentrates increase prolificacy in Corriedale ewes. Animal Reproduction Science, 113: 82-92.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21157/ijtvbr.v1i1.5066


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright© 2016 | ISSN: 2503-4715 

Published by:
The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Syiah Kuala University
In cooperation with:
Center for Tropical Veterinary Studies of Syiah Kuala University
and Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association (PDHI)

Online Submissions & Guidelines Editorial Policies | Contact Statistics Indexing | Citations


Creative Commons License
is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.