Uji Toksisitas Akut Ekstrak Etanol Daun Klausena (Clausena anisata Hook.f.)

Hanifah Yusuf

Abstract


Abstrak. Daun klausena (Clausena anisata Hook.f) termasuk familia Rutaceae, telah digunakan masyarakat Sumatera Barat dan Jawa untuk menghilangkan nyeri, baik nveri kepala, nyeri gigi, rematik dan demam. Secara klinik penggunaan obat tradisional tidak diakui, bila belum terbukti secara ilmiah tentang khasiat maupun keamanannya. Karena belum adanya bukti tentang keamanannya, maka penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui dosis letalis 50 (LD 50) ekstrak etanol daun klausena pada tikus putih. Penelitian eksperimental laboratorik ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (n = 5) dengan hewan percobaan tikus putih (Rattus nrvergicus) jantan dan betina sehat, galur wistar, umur ± 2 bulan, dan berat badan ± 200 g. Enam kelompok tikus putih diberi ekstrak etanol daun klausena secara oral, dengan 5 tingkatan dosis (0,55 mg, 1,1 mg, 2,2 mg, 4,4 mg dan 8,8 mg/ 200 g BB). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat kematian tikus putih 3 ekor  pada dosis 4,4 mg/200 g BB dan 5 ekor pada dosis 8,8 mg/200 g BB ekstrak etanol daun klausena. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol daun klausena tidak toksik dengan nilai LD 50 = 17036,85 mg/ kg BB secara oral. Pada pemeriksaan mikroskopik terhadap organ utama kelompok hewan yang mendapatkan dosis tertinggi (8,8 mg/200 g BB) terlihat adanya perubahan berupa degenerasi sel, nekrosis dan pendarahan.

Abstract. The leaves of klausena plant (Clausena anisata Hook.f), belongs to Rutaceae family has been used by the people in West Sumatera and Java to treat the pain, like headache, toothache, rheumatism and fever. The used of this medicinal plant is not recognized clinically, because it has not been tested scientifically, primary about it's pharmacological activity and safety. Because their safety has not been proven, therefore this research has been done for knowing the lethalic dose 50 (LD50) of ethanolic extract from the leaves of klausena in rats. The experimental laboratoric research has been done, using Completely Randomized Design (n = 5) and as experimental animal used male and female rats (Rattus norvegicus), wistar strain, fine, approximately 2 months age and weighed 200 g. Six groups of rats has been treated orally with the ethanolic extract from the leaves of klausena (Clausena anisata Hook.f) in five level doses (0,55 mg, 1,1 mg, 2,2 mg, 4,4 mg dan 8,8 mg/ 200 g Body Weight of rat). The result showed 3 rats at dose 4,4 mg/200 g  and 5 rats at doses 8,8 mg/200 g Body Weight of rat were died. The obtained indicated the ethanolic extract from the leaves of klausena is not toxic in rats and the value of lethalic dose is 17036, 85 mg / kg Body Weight, orally. Microscopically, at the high dose on experimental animal primary organ has been found some changes, like degeneration; necroses and bleeding of cells.


Keywords


Toksisitas akut; degenerasi; nekrosis Acute toxicity; degeneration; necroses

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References


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