Manifestasi Klinis, Tatalaksana dan Pencegahan Avian Influenza pada Anak

Bakhtiar Bakhtiar

Abstract


Abstrak. Avian influenza (flu burung)  merupakan penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh virus influenza A (H5N1). Virus tersebut berasal dari unggas yang terinfeksi yang kemudian menular kepada anak. Virus influenza A (H5N1) yang terinhalasi akan menyebabkan kerusakan struktur dan fungsi saluran pernafasan, yang diikuti juga dengan kelainan organ tubuh lainnya seperti mata, saluran cerna, dan susunan saraf.  Diagnosis didasarkan pada gambaran  epidemiologis dan klinis.  Namun, diagnosis pasti dibuat berdasarkan pemeriksaan serologi atau ditemukannya virus influenza (H5N1) berdasarkan pemeriksaan polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Diagnosis avian influenza diklasifikasi dalam tiga kelompok, yaitu suspek, probabel, dan terkonfirmasi.  Tatalaksana avian influenza tergantung pada tingkat beratnya penyakit.  Dalam tatalaksana umum, dilakukan pemberian oksigen, hidrasi, dan nutrisi. Sedangkan dalam tatalaksana khusus, dilakukan elimaninasi virus influenza A (H5N1) dengan pmberian anti virus (Oseltamivir, Zanamivir), dan penangulangan infeksi sekunder dengan  antibiotik, atau penangulangan keparahan penyakit, seperti perawatan intensif dan  pemasangan ventilator pada kasus dengan kegagalan pernafasan. Untuk pencegahan avian influenza dapat dilakukan beberapa tindakan seperti menghindari kontak dengan unggas atau bahan yang berasal dari unggas yang sakit, pemberian obat antivirus untuk profilaksis, dan pemberain vaksinasi. 

Abstract. Avian influenza (bird flu) is an infectious disease caused by influenza A (H5N1) virus. The  virus originated from an infected bird  which than spread to the children. The inhaled influenza A (H5N1) virus will damege the structure and function of airway, which will be continued by demaging other organs, such as eye, gastrointestinal, dan nervous system. The diagnosis is based on epidemiological dan clinical  appearance.  But, definite  diagnosis is based on  serological examination or the finding of Influenza A (H5N1) virus according to  Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) examination. The diagnosis of avian influenza is clasified into three groups, e.i  suspected, probable, and confirmed case. The management of avian influenza  depends on the severity of disese. In general management, it is done by administration of  oxigen, hidration, and nutrition. On the other hand, the special management is done by  elimination of influenza A (H5N1) virus with antiviral (Oseltamivit and Zanamivir), the tretment of secundary infection with antibiotic, or management of severity of disease, such as intensive care and usage  of  ventilator in cases  with respiratory failure. The prevention of avian influenza can be done by several acts, such as avoiding contact with infected bird or substances, administration of antivirus for profilatic vaccination.


Keywords


Kata kunci; avian influenza; gangguan pernafasan; antivirus; antibiotika; vaksinasi;avian influenza; respiratory disturbance; antiviral; antibiotic; vaccination.

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