PERAN SEL GRANULOSIT PADA PENYAKIT FILARIASIS

Muhsin Muhsin

Abstract


Abstrak. Infestasi cacing nematoda terutama Filariasis masih menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat di seluruh dunia termasuk di Indonesia. Filariasis adalah penyakit infeksi tropis kronis yang menyerang pembuluh dan kelenjar getah bening (limfe) terutama pada daerah ekstremitas. Peran imunitas tubuh manusia dalam mengurangi inflamasi, jumlah cacing dewasa dalam pembuluh limfe dan mikrofilaria dalam sirkulasi darah serta dalam mencegah kecacatan masih menyisakan tanda tanya besar dan memerlukan penelitian lebih lanjut. Kedua jenis respon imun baik bawaan maupun adaptif diyakini berperan penting dalam mengendalikan atau bahkan memperburuk penyakit. Inflamasi lokal dan sistemik yang melibatkan berbagai jenis sel terutama granulosit telah lama diketahui terjadi pada pasien Filariasis serta menjadi topik yang menarik untuk dibahas. Studi literatur ini memberikan gambaran tentang peran granulosit pada perkembangan penyakit Filariasis, baik pada fase akut maupun kronis. Review ini membahas berbagai studi yang meneliti fungsi netrofil, eosinofil dan basofil pada infeksi akibat spesies nematoda patogen bagi manusia seperti Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi dan Brugia timori, maupun nematoda patogen pada mencit seperti Litomosoides sigmodontis dan Brugia pahangi. Selain itu, sel mast serta beberapa protein yang dihasilkan oleh granulosit yang berperan dalam pertahanan tubuh manusia terhadap infestasi cacing filaria juga akan dibahas dalam studi literatur ini, sehingga akan memberikan gambaran yang utuh terhadap peran granulosit pada penyakit Filariasis.

Kata Kunci: Filariasis, Granulosit, Respon Imun

 

Abstract. Nematode infections, including that caused by filarial worms, are still a public health problem worldwide, especially in Indonesia. Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic neglected tropical disease that attacks lymph vessels and lymph nodes mainly in the extremities. Role of human immunity in reducing inflammation, number of adult worms in lymph vessels and microfilariae in the circulation as well as in preventing disability still leaves questions and requires further research. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are believed to play an important role in controlling or even worsening the disease. Local and systemic inflammations which involve various types of immune cells such as granulocytes have long been known to occur in filariasis patients and being an interesting topic to discuss. This review provides an overview of the role of granulocytes in the development of filariasis; both in acute and chronic phases. The review discusses studies that examined the function of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils in filarial infection, both caused by human filarial worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori and rodent filarial nematode like Litomosoides sigmodontis and Brugia pahangi. Moreover, mast cells and proteins produced by granulocytes that play important role in protection against filarial worm are also discussed, thereby providing a complete picture of role of granulocytes in filariasis.

Keywords: Filariasis, Granulocytes, Immune Response


Keywords


Filariasis, Granulosit, Respon Imun; Filariasis, Granulocytes, Immune Response

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References


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