21. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Plant Extracts

M Daud AK, Juliani Juliani, Sugito Sugito, Mahdi Abrar


About 80% of diabetic people have come from developing countries. Indonesia is seventh of diabetics. Diabetes is a disease as a result of metabolic disorder that caused by lack of insulin secretion and/or insulin do not work properly, so that the sugar highly accumulated in blood (characterized by hyperglycemia). Normally, range of blood sugar is 70 - 110 mg / dL before meals and less than 140 mg / dL after meals. One therapeutic approach to control blood sugar level is to inhibit the activity of starch hydrolysis enzymes, namely α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The active compounds of plant extracts have a unique and diverse structure compared to synthetic ones. This characteristics are important because the inhibition of enzyme activity by active compounds from plant extracts is known to make the formation of chemical bonds (affinity) between the active compounds and enzymes. A number of active compounds from plant extracts such as tannins, flavonoids, polysaccharides, saponins, terpenoids are known to inhibit the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In this study, we discuss some active compounds that inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme from plant extracts.


α-amilase inhibitor; α-glukosidase inhibitor; diabetes; active compound

Full Text:



Alghadyan AA. 2011. Diabetic retinopathy – An update. Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology 25, 99–111.

Amos AF, McCarty DJ, Zimmet P. 1997. The Rising Global Burden of Diabetes and its Complications: Estimates and Projections to the Year 2010. Diabet. Med. 14: S7–S85.

Bhandari MR, Jong-Anurakkun N, Hong G, Kawabata K. 2008. α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of Nepalese medicinal herb Pakhanbhed (Bergenia ciliata, Haw.). Food Chemistry 106: 247–252.

Bisht S, Kant R, Kumar V. 2013. α-D-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of polysaccharide isolated from Acacia tortilis gum exudate. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 59; 214–220.

Chen S, Chen H, Tian J, Wang Y, Xing L, Wang J. 2013. Chemical modification, antioxidant and α amylase inhibitory activities of corn silk polysaccharides. Carbohydrate Polymers 98; 428– 437.

Costantino HR, Brown SH, Kelly RM. 1990. Purification and characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from a hyperthermophilic archaebacterium, Pyrococcus furiosus, exhibiting a temperature optimum of 105 to 115 degrees C. J Bacteriol.;172(7):3654-60.

Cui J, Xi MM, Li YW, Duan JL, Wang L, Weng Y, Jia N, Cao SS, Li RL, Wang C, Zhao C, Wu Y, Wen AD. 2015. Insulinotropic effect of Chikusetsu saponin IVa in diabetic rats and pancreatic β-cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 164; 334–339.

Cui J, Gu X, Wang F, Ouyang J, Wang J. 2015. Purification and structural characterization of an α glucosidase inhibitory polysaccharide from apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) pulp. Carbohydrate Polymers 121 (2015) 309–314.

da Silva SM, Koehnlein EA, Bracht A, Castoldi R, de Morais GR, Baesso ML, Peralta RA, de Souza CGM, de Sá-Nakanishi AB, Peralta RM. 2014. Inhibition of salivary and pancreatic α-amylases by a pinhão coat (Araucaria angustifolia) extract rich in condensed tannin. Food Research International 56 ;1–8

Dabhi AS, Bhatt NR, Shah MJ. 2013. Voglibose: An Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitor. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research; 7(12): 3023-3027.

Dong HQ, Li M, Zhu F, Liu FL, Huang JB. 2012. Inhibitory potential of trilobatin from Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd against a-glucosidase and a-amylase linked to type 2 diabetes. Food Chemistry 130: 261–266.

Gonçalves R, Mateus N, de Freitas V. 2011. Inhibition of a-amylase activity by condensed tannins. Food Chemistry 125; 665–672.

Ghosh S, Rangan L. 2014. Molecular docking and inhibition studies of a-amylase activity by labdane diterpenes from Alpinia nigra seeds. Medicinal Chemistry Research 23 (11) : 4836.

[IDF] International Diabetes Federation. 2013. IDF Diabetes Atlas. http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas[28 Februari 2014].

Jawla S, Kumar Y, Khan MSY. Hypoglycemic activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis stem bark in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine: S919-S923.

Juliani, Yuliana ND, Budijanto S, Wijaya CH, Khatib A. 2016. Senyawa inhibitor α-Glukosidase dari kumis kucing dengan pendekatan metabolomik berbasis FTIR. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 27: 7-30. DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2016.27.1.17.

Kim JS, Kwon YS, Chun WJ, Kim TY, Sun J,Yu CY, Kim MJ. 2010. Rhus verniciflua Stokes flavonoid extracts have anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and α glucosidase inhibitory effect. Food Chemistry 120; 539–543.

Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Shetty K. In vitro studies of eggplant (Solanum melongena) phenolics as inhibitors of key enzymes relevant for type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Bioresource Technology 99 (2008) 2981–2988.

Luo JG, Ma L, Kong LY. 2008. New triterpenoid saponins with strong a-glucosidase inhibitory activity from the roots of Gypsophila oldhamiana. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 16; 2912–2920.

Manaharan T, Teng LL, Appleton D, Ming CH, Masilamani T, Palanisamy UD. 2011. Antioxidant and antiglycemic potential of Peltophorum pterocarpum plant parts. Food Chemistry 129; 1355–1361

Manaharan T, Appleton D, Cheng HM, Palanisamy UD. 2012. Flavonoids isolated from Syzygium aqueum leaf extract as potential antihyperglycaemic agents. Food Chemistry 132; 1802–1807.

Miao M, Jiang B, Jiang H, Zhang T, Li X. 2015. Interaction mechanism between green tea extract and human a-amylase for reducing starch digestion. Food Chemistry xxx; xxx–xxx.

Mohamed EAH, Siddiqui MJA, Ang LF, Sadikun A, Chan SH, Tan SC, Asmawi MZ and Yam MF. 2012. Potent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of standardized 50% ethanolic extracts and sinensetin from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth as anti-diabetic mechanism. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12:176.

Naveed MA, Riaz N, Saleem M, Jabeen B, Ashraf M,Ismail T, Jabbar A. 2014. Longipetalosides A–C, new steroidal saponins from Tribulus longipetalus. Steroids 83; 45–51.

Nhiem NX, Kiem PV, Minh CV, Ban NK, Cuong NX, Tung NH, Ha LM, Ha DT, Tai BH, Quang TH, Ngoc TM, Kwon YI, Jang HD, Kim YH. 2010. α Glucosidase Inhibition Properties of Cucurbitane-Type Triterpene Glycosides from the Fruits of Momordica charantia. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 58(5) 720—724.

Phan MAT, Wang J, Tang J, Lee YZ, Ng K. 2013. Evaluation of a-glucosidase inhibition potential of some flavonoids from Epimedium brevicornum. LWT - Food Science and Technology 53; 492-498

Rolo AP, Palmeira CM. 2006. Diabetes and mitochondrial function: Role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 212; 167–178.

Tong WY, Wang H, Waisundara VY, Huang D. 2014. Inhibiting enzymatic starch digestion by hydrolyzable tannins isolated from Eugenia jambolana. LWT - Food Science and Technology 59 ;389-395.

Trojan-Rodrigues M. Alves TLS, Soares GLG, Ritter MR. 2012. Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139; 155– 163.

Uddin G, Rauf A, Al-Othman AM, Collina S, Arfan M, Ali G, Khan I. 2012. Pistagremic acid, a glucosidase inhibitor from Pistacia integerrima. Fitoterapia 83; 1648–1652.

Umpierrez GE, Isaacs SD, Bazargan N, You X, Thaler LM, Kitabchi AE. 2002. Hyperglycemia: An Independent Marker of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Undiagnosed Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 87; 978–982.

van de Laar FA. 2008. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in the early treatment of type 2 diabetes. Vascular Health and Risk Management :4; 1189–1195.

van der Maarel MJEC, van der Veen B, Uitdehaag JCM, Leemhuis H, Dijkhuizen L. 2002. Properties and applications of starch-converting enzymes of the α-amylase family. Journal of Biotechnology 94; 137–155.

Wang Y, Yang Z, Wei X. 2010. Sugar compositions, _-glucosidase inhibitory and amylase inhibitory activities of polysaccharides from leaves and flowers of Camellia sinensis obtained by different extraction methods. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 47; 534–539.

Warade JP, Pandey A. 2014. Fasting Blood Glucose Level Higher Than Post-Meal in Healthy Subjects: A Study of 738 Subjects. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 3; 1121-1128.

Xiao H, Liu B, Mo H, Liang G. 2015. Comparative evaluation of tannic acid inhibiting α-glucosidase and trypsin. Food Research International xxx; xxx–xxx.

Xu Y, Zhang L, Yang Yu, Song X, Yu Z. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted compound enzymatic extractionand characterization of polysaccharides from blackcurrant. Carbohydrate Polymers xxx; xxx–xxx.

Yang F, Shi H, Zhang X, Yang H, Zhou Q, Yu L. 2013. Two new saponins from tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum), and their anti-inflammatory and a-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Food Chemistry 141; 3606–3613.

Yao S, Luo JG, Ma L, Kong LY. 2011. Two New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Gypsophila paniculata with Potent α-Gucosidase Inhibition Activity. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines ;9 (6): 0401−0405.

Yao X, Zhu L, Chen Y, Tian J, Wang Y. 2013. In vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity and a-glucosidase, a-amylase inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Cichorium glandulosum seeds. Food Chemistry 139; 59–66.

Zhang S, Li XZ. 2015. Inhibition of α glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of Camellia oleifera Abel. Carbohydrate Polymers 115; 38–43.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21157/j.med.vet..v13i2.13819

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.21157/j.med.vet..v13i2.13819.g10970


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 by author and J. Med. Vet.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
J. Med. Vet. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.