Analisis Perubahan Tipe Iklim dan Dampaknya Terhadap Produksi Padi Sawah di Kabupaten Aceh Besar

Amaluddin Amaluddin, Hairul Basri, Sugianto Sugianto

Abstract


Abstract: The research aimed to analyse the climate type change and its effect on the weatland paddy production. The average precipation of area used a method of Thiessen Polygon. The temperature and air humidity used Dauglas HK.Lee’s classification. Meanwhile, Schmidth-Ferguson’ classification was used to observe the climate type change of the area and the climate change on the weatland paddy production was analysed through a regression multiple. The observation was conducted for 15 years in the first period (1983-1997) and for 15 years in the second period (1998-2012). The research results showed that the change of climate type in the area of Aceh Besar district had happened from the type A to the type B in the area of Saree and Kota Jantho subdistrict. Further, the climate change of type B to the type C also happened in Blang Bintang subdistrict. Saree had the average precipitation from 2.466 mm/year in the first period to 1.735 mm/year in the second period. Also, Blang Bintang subdistrict had the average precipitation from 3.857 mm/year to 1.393 mm/year, and Kota Jantho subdistrict had the precipitation from 4.431 mm/year to 1.917. The regression analysis showed that the climate did not have a clear influence on the weatland paddy productivity and the area the for live of wide harvested. Great Aceh District had implemented a development of agriculture for food plants which were not affected by the climate change structurally or non structurally. This can be seen from the fact that the Local Government had given a contribution to the society: such as giving new variety of plants in every planting season, organic fertilizer, drainage and reservoir building, opening a new weatland and agricultural extension workers. Although these contributions have not been implemented fully, they have given positive effect on the threat of food security in Great Aceh District for the last 30 years. This can be seen that the total of weatland paddy production in the last 15 years of the second period have got increased for 1.558.711 tons or 10.3 per cent and got decreased for 13.686 ha, so that the influence of climate change was not significant for two period examied.

 

Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perubahan tipe iklim terhadap produksi padi sawah, rata-rata curah hujan wilayah menggunakan metode Poligon Thiessen, suhu dan kelembaban udara menggunakan penggolongan Dauglas HK. Lee. Sedangkan klasifikasi Schmidth-Ferguson digunakan untuk melihat perubahan tipe iklim wilayah, perubahan iklim terhadap produksi dilakukan analisis Regresi linier berganda. Pengamatan dilakukan pada periode 15 tahunan pertama (1983-1997) dan 15 periode 15 tahunan kedua (1998-2012). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi perubahan tipe iklim wilayah di Kabupaten Aceh Besar dari tipe A ke tipe B pada Kawasan Saree dan Kecamatan Kota Jantho. Selanjutnya perubahan tipe iklim B ke tipe C untuk Kecamatan Blang Bintang. Dengan rata-rata curah hujan Kawasan Saree 2.466 mm tahun-1 periode pertama menjadi 1.735 mm tahun-1 di periode kedua, Kecamatan Blang Bintang 3.857 mm/tahun menjadi 1.393 mm tahun dan Kecamatan Kota Jantho 4.431 mm tahun-1 menjadi 1.917 mm tahun-1. Analisis regresi menunjukkan bahwa perubahan iklim berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap produktivitas padi sawah dan luas lahan gagal panen. Dikarenakan Kabupaten Aceh Besar telah menerapkan pembangunan pertanian tanaman pangan yang tahan terhadap perubahan iklim baik struktural maupun non struktural. Hal ini terlihat dari adanya bantuan Pemerintah daerah kepada masyarakat seperti: pemberian varietas-varietas baru setiap musim tanam, pupuk organik, pembagunan irigasi dan drainase, waduk, pembukaan lahan sawah baru serta tenaga penyuluh pertanian. Kendati demikian belum sepenuhnya terlaksanakan tetapi ini telah memberikan konstribusi terhadap ancaman ketahanan pangan di Kabupaten Aceh Besar selama 30 tahun terakhir yang terlihat dari jumlah produksi padi sawah 15 tahunan periode kedua terjadi peningkatan sebesar 1.558.711 ton atau 10.3 persen dan luas lahan gagal panen terjadi penurunan sebesar 13.686 ha, sehingga pengaruh perubahan iklim terabaikan selama dua periode tersebut.

Keywords


Perubahan Tipe Iklim; Produksi Padi Sawah; Luas Lahan Gagal Panen

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ISSN
: 2301-6981
Copyright © 2015 Jurnal Manajemen Sumberdaya Lahan
Program Studi Magister Konservasi Sumberdaya Lahan (KSDL)
Pasca Sarjana Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Syiah Kuala
dan Himpunan llmu Tanah Indonesia (HITI) Komda Aceh
 
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