Transesterifikasi Minyak Biji Buta-Buta menjadi Biodiesel pada Katalis Heterogen Kalsium Oksida (CaO)

Muhammad Zaki, Husni Husin, M.T., Pocut Nurul Alam, Darmadi Darmadi, Cut Meurah Rosnelly, Nurhazanah Nurhazanah

Abstract


Penelitian ini menggunakan katalis padat CaO untuk reaksi transesterifikasi minyak biji buta-buta menjadi biodiesel. Minyak biji buta-buta diekstraksi menggunakan alat press. Katalis CaO disiapkan dari cangkang kerang dengan cara dipijar pada suhu 850 oC. Sampel katalis dikarakterisasi dengan metode scanning electron microscopy (SEM) dan x-ray diffractometer (XRD). Katalis cangkang kerang memiliki ukuran partikel antara 200-2000 nm. Hal ini karena pemanasan cangkang pada 850 oC menyebabkan terjadi aglomerasi. Dari rekaman XRD teridentifikasi bahwa katalis didominasi oleh senyawa CaO dan terdapat sedikit CaCO3. Reaksi transesterifikasi dilangsungkan dalam reaktor batch dengan variasi suhu (55 oC, 60 oC, 65oC, dan 70oC), rasio metanol terhadap minyak: 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, 12:1, dan 15:1. Reaksi dilangsungkan selama 3 jam dan katalis didispersi 6 % berat dari minyak. Perolehan metil ester maksimum dicapai 96,7% pada kondisi reaksi, yaitu: molar metanol:minyak 12:1 dan suhu reaksi 65 oC. Karakteristik biodiesel hasil penelitian ini memenuhi sifat-sifat bahan bakar berkualitas tinggi sesuai dengan standar SNI dan ASTM. Proses transesterifikasi minyak biji buta-buta dan metanol menggunakan CaO sebagai katalis basa heterogen layak diaplikasikan secara komersial untuk produksi biodiesel dalam skala industri.


Keywords


minyak buta-buta; katalis padat; kalsium oksida; transesterifikasi; biodiesel

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23955/rkl.v14i1.13495

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