Penggunaan Metode Pemupukan Awal Broadcast Incorporated Menggunakan Mesin Tanam Terintegrasi Dan Pengaruhnya Pada Fase Awal Pertumbuhan Tanaman Jagung

Agustami Sitorus

Abstract


Abstract. Aplikasi penggunaan pupuk kimia pada pertanian yang belum tepat takaran, waktu, jenis dan tempat pemberiannya menjadi isu pencemaran lingkungan di dunia akhir dekade ini. Suatu metode pemupukan yang lebih presisi dan efisien terus dicari dan diteliti hingga saat ini. Metode penebaran pupuk di dalam tanah (broadcast incorporated) menjadi hal baru yang terus dikembangkan. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur penyebaran pupuk hasil aplikasi metode pemupukan broadcast incorporated sebagai pupuk awal (starter) untuk budidaya jagung. Aplikasi pemupukan awal menggunakan mesin penanam dan pemupuk jagung terintegrasi yang telah dikembangkan pada penelitian sebelumnya. Untuk mengetahui dampak penggunaan metode pemupukan dan mesin tersebut dilakukan pengamatan terhadap 20 tanaman jagung. Pengamatan dilakukan hingga 14 hari setelah tanam (HST) terhadap tinggi dan jumlah daun yang muncul dari benih jagung hibrida dan jagung manis. Metode tanam yang digunakan adalah jajar legowo dengan 1-3 benih per lubang tanam dan jarak antar tanamannya adalah ± 20 cm. Sebuah kotak persegi berukuran panjang, lebar dan tinggi masing-masing 15 cm, 15 cm, dan 15 cm didesain sebagai peralatan untuk pengambilan sample. Wadah tersebut diberi sekat setiap 5 cm sehingga terdapat 27 ruang dalam kotak tersebut. Jenis pupuk yang digunakan adalah NPK dengan distribusi ukuran butiran 2.36 mm - 4.76 mm sebanyak 81.20%. Dosis pemupukan yang diterapkan adalah 150 kg/ha atau 11.25 g/m alur tanam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada semua sekat sampel ditemukan pupuk NPK dengan rata-rata 0.071±0.035 g. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa pupuk telah tercampur dan tersebar didalam tanah. Nilai coefficient of variation dari sebaran pupuk termasuk dalam klasifikasi sangat teracak atau tercampur. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa parameter tinggi tanaman dan jumlah daun pada benih jagung hibrida dan jagung manis (14 HST) masing-masing adalah 11.9±2.6 cm, 3.85±0.4 daun, 10.7±2.3 cm, 3.4±0.5 daun.

 

The Use Of Broadcast Incorporated As A Method Of Starter Fertilizers Using Integrated Corn Transplanter And The Effect On The First Phase Of Corn Growth 

Abstrak. The application of chemical fertilizers to agriculture that is not precisely measured, not on time, not suitable for the type and not ideal for the place becomes an issue of environmental pollution at the end of this decade. A more precise and efficient fertilization method is continually being search and investigation to date. The method of broadcast incorporated is a new thing that continues to be developed. Therefore, this study aims to measure the broadcast incorporated of fertilizers as a starter fertilizer for corn cultivation. The starter fertilizer application uses integrated corn growers and fertilizers which have been developed in previous studies. A total of 20 corn plants were observed to determine the impact of using the fertilization method and the machine. Observations were made up to 14 days after planting (DAP) on the height and number of leaves that emerged from hybrid corn seeds and sweet corn. The planting method used is jajar legowo with 1-3 seeds per planting hole, and the distance between plants is ± 20 cm. A container of length, width, and height of 15 cm, 15 cm, and 15 cm respectively is designed as equipment for sampling. The container is given an insulation every 5 cm so that there are 27 spaces in the box. The type of fertilizer used is NPK with a grain size distribution of 2.36 mm until 4.76 mm as much as 81.20%. The applied fertilizer dose is 150 kg/ha or 11.25 g / m planting groove. The results showed that in all sample partition NPK fertilizer was found with an average of 0.071±0.035 g. This indicates that the fertilizer has been mixed and spread in the soil. The value of the coefficient of variation from the distribution of fertilizers included in the classification is highly randomized or mixed. The results showed that the parameters of plant height and the number of leaves on hybrid corn seeds and sweet corn (14 DAP) were 11.9±2.6 cm, 3.85±0.4 leaves, 10.7±2.3 cm, 3.4±0.5 leaves, respectively.

Keywords


distribusi; pupuk NPK; broadcast incorporated; jajar legowo; Distribution; NPK fertilizer; broadcast incorporated; jajar legowo

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/rtp.v11i2.13587

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