Tinjauan Penilaian Siklus Hidup Bahan Bakar Biodiesel di Indonesia

Kiman Siregar


Abstrak. Saat ini permasalahan lingkungan menjadi pertimbangan yang sangat penting dalam produksi biodiesel. Meskipun sumber energi ini (biodiesel) dianggap sebagai karbon netral, namun dalam rangkaian proses produksinya masih menghasilkan berbagai gas berbahaya ke lingkungan. Negara-negara Eropa dan Amerika mengklaim bahwa produksi biodiesel dari minyak kelapa sawit memberikan kontribusi emisi karbon ke atmosfer sepanjang jalur produksinya. Selain itu, US EPA-NODA dan EU RED menyatakan bahwa biodiesel dari minyak kelapa sawit hanya dapat mengurangi emisi GWP 17%  dan 19% dibandingkan dengan bahan bakar berbasis fosil. Mengingat bahwa persyaratan minimum US adalah 20% dan EU adalah 35%, maka minyak kelapa sawit dari Indonesia mengalami kesulitan untuk memasuki pasar global. Pendekatan ilmiah harus dilakukan oleh Indonesia untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Tinjauan dari berbagai literatur menyebutkan bahwa keberlanjutan produksi biodiesel dari kelapa sawit lebih baik dibandingkan jarak pagar, bahkan apabila dibandingkan dengan bahan baku yang lain seperti lobak. Tinjauan dari berbagai literatur menyebutkan bahwa nilai karbon yang dapat diserap oleh hutan primer lebih tinggi dari hutan sekunder dan dari perkebunan kelapa sawit. Kondisi inilah yang menjadi alasan mengapa dunia menyebutkan bahwa Indonesia sebagai penyebab pemanasan global, meskipun penelitian lebih lanjut masih dibutuhkan berdasarkan data terakhir di Indonesia. Dari kondisi ril di Indonesia diperoleh nilai GRK sebelum produksi stabil yaitu 2.575,47 kg-CO2eq./ton-minyak biodiesel (BDF) untuk minyak kelapa sawit dan 3.057,74 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF untuk minyak jarak pagar. Ketika produksi sudah stabil diperoleh nilai GRK sebesar 1.511,96 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF untuk minyak kelapa sawit and 380,52 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF untuk minyak jarak pagar. Jika kita bandingkan dengan minyak solar, maka nilai emisi CO2eq. dapat diturunkan  49,27 % untuk biodiesel dari minyak kelapa sawit dan 88,45 % untuk biodiesel dari minyak jarak pagar.


Review of Life Cycle Assesment of Biodiesel in Indonesia

Abstract. Currently, environmental consideration becomes the most important issue in biodiesel production. Eventhough source of energy is considered as carbon neutral, the production path may release various environmentally hazardous gasses. European and American countries claim that production of biodiesel from palm oil contributes carbon emission to the atmosphere along its production path. Furthermore, US EPA-NODA and EU RED stated that palm oil based biodiesel can only reduce emission of GWP by 17 % and 19 % compared to fossil-fuel based. Considering on the minimum requirement is 20 % for US and 35 % for EU, CPO from Indonesia experiences difficulties to enter the global market. Scientific approach should be undertaken by Indonesia to address this issue. Summary of the literature mentions that the sustainability of biodiesel from palm oil is better than Jatropha curcas, compared to other sources of raw materials, such as rapeseed. Summary of the literature mentions that the value of carbon that can be absorbed by primary forest is higher than secondary forest and palm oil plantation. This is the reason why world claims Indonesia on global warming issues although further research is still needed based on the latest data. From the real condition in Indonesia, in which GHG value before stable productivity is 2 575.47 kg-CO2eq./ton-Biodiesel fuel(BDF) for oil palm and 3 057.74 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF for Jatropha curcas. When the productivity has reached stability, the GHG value is  1 511.96 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF for oil palm and 380.52 kg-CO2eq./ton-BDF for Jatropha curcas. If we compared to diesel fuel, CO2eq. emission is reduced up to 49.27 % and 88.45 % for BDF-CPO and BDF-CJCO, respectively.


Potensi pemanasan global; penilaian siklus hidup; biodiesel; minyak kelapa sawit; Global warming potential; life cycle assessment; biodiesel; crude palm oil

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/rtp.v7i2.2648


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