Effects of affective variables and willingness to communicate on students’ English-speaking performance in Thailand

Budi Waluyo, Rahmah Bakoko

Abstract


Recently, Willingness to Communicate (WTC) has been explored and proposed to be one of the key concepts for identifying when one decides to initiate communication in the target language. The attention, nonetheless, has been concentrated on how WTC interacts with other learners’ variables. This study, on the other hand, intends to offer empirical evidence on the direct roles of affective variables (self-confidence, anxiety, motivation, and grit) and WTC variables (WTC inside the classroom, WTC outside the classroom, and WTC in a digital setting) in Thai students’ English-speaking performance. The data were obtained from 35 undergraduate students (17.1% males; 82.9% females) using a survey questionnaire. Then, a speaking test was taken from an English Communication Skills course and was analysed using correlation and hierarchical regression. The results disclosed positive correlations among self-confidence, motivation, grit, WTC in a digital setting, WTC inside the classroom, WTC outside the classroom, and speaking performance, and negative correlations among self-confidence, anxiety, and grit. However, motivation was the only significant predictor of speaking performance. The findings offer some implications for English teachers in improving students’ English-speaking performance. 


Keywords


affective variables; Thai EFL learners; speaking; willingness to communicate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alemi, M., & Pahmforoosh, R. (2012). EFL learners’ willingness to communicate: The interplay between language learning anxiety and language proficiency. International Journal of English Linguistics, 11(2), 23-34.

Banse, H., & Palacios, N. (2018). Supportive classrooms for Latino English language learners: Grit, ELL status, and the classroom context. The Journal of Educational Research, 111(6), 645-656. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2017.1389682

Bialystok, E., & Fröhlich, M. (1978). Variables of classroom achievement in second language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 62(7), 327-336. https://doi.org/10.2307/324451

Burroughs, N. F., Marie, V., & McCroskey, J. C. (2003). Relationships of self‐perceived communication competence and communication apprehension with willingness to communicate: A comparison with first and second languages in Micronesia. Communication Research Reports, 20(3), 230-239. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090309388821

Cao, Y., & Philp, J. (2006). Interactional context and willingness to communicate: A comparison of behavior in whole class, group and dyadic interaction. System, 34(4), 480-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.05.002

Chastain, K. (1975). Affective and ability factors in second‐language acquisition. Language Learning, 25(1), 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1975.tb00115.x

Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1994). Motivation, self‐confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language Learning, 44(3), 417-448. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01113.x

Clément, R., & Kruidenier, B. G. (1985). Aptitude, attitude and motivation in second language proficiency: A test of Clément’s model. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 4(1), 21-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X8500400102

Cook, B. G., & Cook, L. (2008). Nonexperimental quantitative research and its role in guiding instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(2), 98-104. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053451208321565

D’Amico, M. L. (2012). L2 fluency and willingness to communicate: The impact of short-term study abroad versus at-home study. US-China Foreign Language, 10(10), 1608-1625.

de Saint Léger, D., & Storch, N. (2009). Learners’ perceptions and attitudes: Implications for willingness to communicate in an L2 classroom. System, 37(2), 269-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.01.001

Dewaele, J. M., & Dewaele, L. (2018). Learner-internal and learner-external predictors of willingness to communicate in the FL classroom. Journal of the European Second Language Association, 2(1), 24-37. https://doi.org/10.22599/jesla.37

Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31(3), 117-135. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480001315X

Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1087

Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105(3), 399-412. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12046

Fallah, N. (2014). Willingness to communicate in English, communication self-confidence, motivation, shyness and teacher immediacy among Iranian English-major undergraduates: A structural equation modeling approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 30, 140-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2013.12.006

Fushino, K. (2010). Causal relationships between communication confidence, beliefs about group work, and willingness to communicate in foreign language group work. Tesol Quarterly, 44(4), 700-724.

Gardner, R. C. (2007). Motivation and second language acquisition. Porta Linguarum, 8, 9-20.

Gardner, R. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1993). A student’s contributions to second-language learning. Part II: Affective variables. Language Teaching, 26(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800000045

Guntzviller, L. M., Yale, R. N., & Jensen, J. D. (2016). Foreign language communication anxiety outside of a classroom: Scale validation and curvilinear relationship with foreign language use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(4), 605-625. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116635743

Gürler, İ. (2015). Correlation between self-confidence and speaking skill of English language teaching and English language and literature preparatory students. Current Research in Social Sciences, 1(2), 14-19.

Hashimoto, Y. (2002). Motivation and willingness to communicate as predictors of reported L2 use: The Japanese ESL context. Second Language Studies, 20(2), 29-70.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132. https://doi.org/10.2307/327317

Hwa, S. P., & Peck, W. K. (2017). Gender differences in speaking anxiety among English as a second language learners in a Malaysian tertiary context. International Journal for Studies on Children, Women, Elderly and Disabled, 2(6), 108-117.

Kasap, S. (2019). Anxiety in the EFL speaking classrooms. The Journal of Language Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 23-36.

Keegan, K. (2017). Identifying and building grit in language learners. English Teaching Forum, 55(3), 2-9.

Khajavy, G. H., Ghonsooly, B., Hosseini Fatemi, A., & Choi, C. W. (2016). Willingness to communicate in English: A microsystem model in the Iranian EFL classroom context. Tesol Quarterly, 50(1), 154-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.204

Labrie, N., & Clement, R. (1986). Ethnolinguistic vitality, self‐confidence and second language proficiency: An investigation. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 7(4), 269-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1986.9994244

Lee, J. S., & Drajati, N. A. (2019). Affective variables and informal digital learning of English: Keys to willingness to communicate in a second language. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(5), 168-182. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.5177

Lee, J. S., & Hsieh, J. C. (2019). Affective variables and willingness to communicate of EFL learners in in-class, out-of-class, and digital contexts. System, 82, 63-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.03.002

Lee, J. S., & Lee, K. (2019). Affective factors, virtual intercultural experiences, and L2 willingness to communicate in in-class, out-of-class, and digital settings. Language Teaching Research, 24(6), 813-833. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168819831408

Lin, Y. T. (2019). Taiwanese EFL learners’ willingness to communicate in English in the classroom: Impacts of personality, affect, motivation, and communication confidence. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 28(2), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-018-0417-y

Lindenberger, U., & Pötter, U. (1998). The complex nature of unique and shared effects in hierarchical linear regression: Implications for developmental psychology. Psychological Methods, 3(2), 218-230. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.3.2.218

MacIntyre, P. D. (1994). Variables underlying willingness to communicate: A causal analysis. Communication Research Reports, 11(2), 135-142. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099409359951

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S., Clément, R., & Donovan, L. (2003). Talking in order to learn: Willingness to communicate and intensive language programs. Canadian Modern Language Review, 59(4), 589-608. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.59.4.589

MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(1), 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X960151001

MacIntyre, P. D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545-562. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb05543.x

McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985, November 7-10). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement [Paper presentation]. The Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, US.

Ohata, K. (2016). Factors influencing learner self-confidence in a Japanese EAP program. Asian ESP Journal, 12(1), 183-212.

Peng, J. E. (2013). The challenge of measuring willingness to communicate in EFL contexts. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(3), 281-290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-012-0053-x

Peng, J. E., & Woodrow, L. (2010). Willingness to communicate in English: A model in the Chinese EFL classroom context. Language learning, 60(4), 834-876. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00576.x

Pyun, D. O., Kim, J. S., Cho, H. Y., & Lee, J. H. (2014). Impact of affective variables on Korean as a foreign language learners’ oral achievement. System, 47, 53-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.09.017

Reinders, H., & Wattana, S. (2015). Affect and willingness to communicate in digital game-based learning. ReCALL, 27(1), 38-57. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000226

Schumann, J. H. (1975). Affective factors and the problem of age in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 25(2), 209–235. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1975.tb00242.x

Shirvan, M. E., Khajavy, G. H., MacIntyre, P. D., & Taherian, T. (2019). A meta-analysis of L2 willingness to communicate and its three high-evidence correlates. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 48(6), 1241-1267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-019-09656-9

Taylor, B. P. (1974). Toward a theory of language acquisition 1. Language Learning, 24(1), 23-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1974.tb00233.x

Vongsila, V., & Reinders, H. (2016). Making Asian learners talk: Encouraging willingness to communicate. RELC Journal, 47(3), 331-347. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688216645641

Waluyo, B. (2019). Task-based language teaching and theme-based role-play: Developing EFL learners’ communicative competence. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 16(1), 153-168.

Waluyo, B. (2020). Thai EFL learners’ WTC in English: Effects of ICT support, learning orientation, and cultural perception. Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies, 20(2), 477-514.

Waluyo, B., & Rofiah, N. L. (2021). Developing students’ English oral presentation skills: Do self-confidence, teacher feedback, and English proficiency matter? MEXTESOL Journal, 45(3), 1-17.

Wei, H., Gao, K., & Wang, W. (2019). Understanding the relationship between grit and foreign language performance among middle school students: The roles of foreign language enjoyment and classroom environment. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01508

Yashima, T., Zenuk‐Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 54(1), 119-152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00250.x

Yoon, S., Kim, S., & Kang, M. (2020). Predictive power of grit, professor support for autonomy and learning engagement on perceived achievement within the context of a flipped classroom. Active Learning in Higher Education, 21(3), 233-247. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787418762463

Zarrinabadi, N., Ketabi, S., & Abdi, R. (2014). Facilitating willingness to communicate in the second language classroom and beyond. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 87(5), 213-217. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098655.2014.924895




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v9i1.21090

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.