Maintenance of Acehnese terms of address in an intermarriage family

Maria Ulfa


This study deals with the maintenance of terms of address of Acehnese young generation in intermarriage family. It employs a qualitative research design with a case study. This study aims to describe: (1) the factors that influence the Acehnese young generation in intermarriage families in maintaining Acehnese terms of address in their family, (2) the patterns of the maintenance of terms of address of Acehnese young generation in intermarriage families, and (3) the reasons why the Acehnese young generation from intermarriage families maintain the terms of address in Acehnese. The subjects were 20 children of intermarriage families, with ages ranging from 15 to 26. The instruments used in this study were a questionnaire and interviews. The results showed that there were 14 respondents (70%) who maintained the terms of address and six (30%) who shifted the terms of address. Moreover, four factors that influenced the younger generation to maintain the terms of address are parental roles, attitudes, environment and demography. Additionally, there were four patterns of the maintenance of terms of address: (1) children of Acehnese fathers maintaining the terms of address, (2) children of Acehnese mothers maintaining the terms of address, (3) children of Acehnese fathers partly maintaining the terms of address mixing Acehnese and Indonesian terms of addresses, and 4) children of Acehnese mothers partly maintaining the terms of address, mixing Acehnese and Indonesian terms of addresses. Finally, three reasons for the maintenance of terms of address are family traditions, ethnic identity and politeness in language.


Language maintenance; terms of address; intermarriage family

Full Text:



Batibo, H. (2005). Language decline and death in Africa. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Press.

Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. K. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Budiman, S., Musa, I., Yasin, B., & Gani, M. F. A. (1990). Sistem sapaan dalam Bahasa Aceh. Banda Aceh: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Clyne, M. (1991). Community languages: The Australian experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Edwards, J. (1994). Multilingualism. London: Pinguin.

Gomaa, Y. A. (2011). Language maintenance and transmission: The case of Egyptian Arabic in Durham, UK. International Journal of English Linguistics, 1(1), 46-53.

Gunew, S., & Rizvi, F. (1994). Culture, difference and the arts. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

Holmes, J. (2001). An Introduction to sociolinguistics. New York: Longman Press.

Hudyma, K. (2012). Language maintenance and shift: Case study of Ukrainian in Saskatchewan. (Master), University of Saskatchewan, Sastaton.

Jucker, A. (2002). Diachronic perspective on address term system. Amsterdam: John Benjamin.

Luning, R., & Yamauchi, L. A. (2010). The influences of indigenous heritage language education on students and families in a Hawaiian language immersion program. Heritage Language Journal, 7, 46-75.

Mesthrie, R. (1999). Language loyalty. In B. Spolsky (Ed.), Concise encyclopedia of educational linguistics (pp. 42–47). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, C.A.: Sage.

Morgan, C. V. (2009). Intermarriage across race and ethnicity among immigrants. El Paso, T. X. : LFB Scholarly.

Namei, S. (2012). Iranian in Sweden: A study of language maintenance and shift. Uppsala: Uppsala University.

Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri. (2007). Pedoman bagi Kepala Daerah dalam pelestarian dan pengembangan bahasa negara dan bahasa daerah. Jakarta: Retrieved on January 14, 2017 from

Pauwels, A. (2004). Language maintenance. In A. Devis & C. Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 719-737). Malden, M. A.: Blackwell.

Ramirez, E., & Gibbons, J. (2004). Maintaining a minority language: A case study of Hispanic teenagers. Clevedon: Cromwell Press.

Reyhner, J., & Tennant, E. (1995). Maintaining and renewing native languages. The Billingual Research Journal, 19(2), 279-304.

Romaine, S. (1994). Language in society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sanchez-Castro, O., & Gil, J. (2008). Two perspectives on language maintenance: The Salvadorian community in Queensland and the Spanish community in South Australia. The International Journal of Language Society and Culture, 27, 36-47.

Scotton, C. M. (2006). Multiple voices: An introduction to billingualism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Wardhaugh, R. (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics (5th ed.). Victoria: Blackwell Publishing.

Zhang, D. (2008). Between two generations: Language maintenance and aculturation among Chinese immigrant families. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.