Histologi, Histomorfometri, dan Histokimia Usus Ayam Buras (Gallus gallus domesticus) Selama Periode Sebelum dan Setelah Menetas

Bagus Dwijayanti, Erdiansyah Rahmi, Ummu Balqis, Fitriani Fitriani, Dian Masyitha, Dwinna Aliza, Muslim Akmal

Abstract


ABSTRACT. Usus adalah salah satu organ pencernaan yang berperan penting pada proses absorpsi nutrisi sebagai sumber energi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui histologi, histomorfometri dan histokimia sebaran glikogen pada usus ayam buras (Gallus gallus domesticus) sebelum dan setelah menetas menggunakan pewarnaan Haematoksilin-Eosin (HE) dan pewarnaan Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS). Sampel penelitian terdiri atas empat kelompok tingkat umur berbeda, setiap kelompok berjumlah enam usus ayam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan nyata (P˂0,05) morfometri usus ayam buras secara makroskopis. Secara histologis pada setiap perkembangan sudah terlihat lapisan usus yang terdiri atas tunika mukosa, submukosa, muskularis, dan serosa. Pada tunika mukosa, didapati tiga lamina yaitu lamina epitelia, propria, dan muskularis mukosa yang mulai teramati pada masa inkubasi hari ke-14. Lamina epitelia berupa sel epitel silindris selapis dengan mikrovili, lamina propria berupa jaringan ikat, dan lamina muskularis mukosa berupa berkas otot polos. Pada tunika mukosa dijumpai adanya sel Goblet dan kripta Liberkuhn yang teramati pada masa inkubasi hari ke-20 dan setelah menetas hari ke-7. Hasil histomorfometri ketebalan lapisan usus, panjang vili, lebar vili, dan diameter lumen usus ayam buras pada masa inkubasi dan setelah menetas menunjukkan perbedaan nyata (P˂0,05). Temuan reaksi positif kuat terhadap pewarnaan PAS dijumpai pada masa inkubasi hari ke-20 dan setelah menetas hari ke-7 dan positif lemah pada masa inkubasi hari ke-14. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat korelasi antara perkembangan usus ayam secara makroskopis, histomorfometri ketebalan tunika dan vili, serta sebaran reaksi positif kuat terhadap pewarnaan PAS pada masa inkubasi hari ke-20 dan setelah menetas hari ke-7.

 

(Histological, histomorphometrical, and histochemical of intestine on native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during pre and posthatch period)

ABSTRAK. The intestines are one of the digestive organ that play an important role in the nutrient absorption process as an energy source. The aim of this study was to determine the histomorphometric and histochemical of glycogen distribution in the intestines of native chickens pre and post hatching periods using Haematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The samples of this study was consisted of four different age groups, each group consisting of six chicken intestines. The results showed a significant difference (P˂0.05) on macroscopic morphometry of the native chicken’s intestine. Histologically in each group has been found the intestines consisting of mucosa, submucous, muscularis, and serous tunic. In the mucosal tunic, there were three layers; ephitelial, propria, and muscularial mucous can be observed during the 14th day of incubation period. Ephitelial layer in the form of cylindrical epithelial cells with microvilli, proprial layer in the form of connective tissue, and layer of the muscularis mucosa form smooth muscle thread. In the mucosal tunic, there was Goblet cells and Liberkuhn crypts that can be observed during the 20th day incubation period and 7th day post hatch. Histomorphometry results of intestinal lining thickness, villi length, villi width, and lumen diameter of native chicken intestine during incubation and post hatching showed significant differences (P˂0.05). The findings of a strong positive reaction to the staining of PAS were found on the incubation period of the 20th day and post hatching the 7th day and positively weak on the incubation period of the 14th day. It can be concluded that there is a correlation between macroscopic development of chicken intestine, histomorphometric of tunica and villous thickness, as well as the distribution of strong positive reactions to the staining of PAS during the incubation period of the 20th day and post hatching the 7th day.

Keywords


usus; ayam buras; glikogen; Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS); histomorfometri; Intestine; native chicken; glycogen; histomorphometry

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdeen, A.M., Mostafa, N.A., Abo-Eleneen, R.E., Elsadany, D.A., 2013. Anatomical studies on the alimentary tract of the Egyptian typhlopid snake Rhamphotyphlops braminus. Am. J. Sci. 9(1): 504-517.

Al-Juboury, R.W., 2016. Comparative anatomical and histological study on the digestive tract in two Iraqi birds, common wood pigeon Colimba palumbus (L.) and barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli). Pure. Appl. Sci. 24(5): 946-956.

Al-taee, A.A., 2017. Macroscopic and microscopic study of digestive tract of brown falcon Falco berigora in Iraq. Pure. Appl. Sci. 25(3): 915-936.

Apriliyani, N.I., Djaelani, M.A., Tana, S., 2016. Profil histologi duodenum berbagai itik lokal di kabupaten Semarang. Bioma. 18(2): 144-150.

Asmawati, 2013. The effect of in ovo feeding on hatching weight and small intestinal tissue development of native chicken. Anim. Prod. Sci. 10(134): 1-6.

Bacha, W.J. dan Bacha, L.M. 2000. Color Atlas of Veterinary Histology. 2ͭ ͪ ed. Baltimore, Maryland.

Balqis, U., Hanafiah, M., Januari, C., Salim, M.N., Aisyah, S., Fahrimal, Y., 2015. Jumlah sel goblet pada usus ayam kampung (Gallus domesticus) yang terinfeksi Ascaridia galli secara alami. JMV. 9(1): 64-67.

Bellairs, R., Osmond, M., 2014. The Atlas of Chicken Development. 3ͭ ͪ ed. Elsevier, Kidlington, Oxford.

Birchenough, G.M.H., Johanson, M.E.V., Gustafsson, J.K., Bergstrom, J.H., Hansson, G.C., 2015. New developments in goblet cell mucus secretion and function. Mucosal Immunol. 8(4): 712-719.

Dahlke, F., Ribeiro, A.M.L., Kessler, A.M., Lima, A.R., Maiorka, A., 2003. Effects of corn particle size and physical form of the diet on the gastrointestinal structures of broiler chickens. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 5(1): 61-67.

Dellman, H.D., Brown, E.M., 1992. Histologi Veteriner. (Diterjemahkan oleh: R. Hantono). Edisi 3. Universitas Indonesia Press, Jakarta.

Deshmukh, S., 2003. A Textbook of Histology. Dominant Publisher, New Delhi.

Eroschenko, V.P., 2010. Atlas Histologi diFiore. (Diterjemahkan oleh: Brahm U. Pendit). EGC, Penerbit Buku Kedokteran, Jakarta.

Esch, E.V., Buse, E., Weinbauer, G.F., Cline, J.M., 2008. The macaque endometrium with special reference to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toxicol. Pathol. 36(7): 67-100.

Fadilah, R., 2004. Panduan Mengelola Peternakan Ayam Broiler Komersial. Agromedia Pustaka, Depok.

Fathoni, N., Djaelani, M.A., Isdadiyanto, S., 2011. Glikogen otot rangka ayam broiler (Gallus gallus) setelah pemberian teh kombucha dalam air minum. Bioma. 20(2): 79-85.

Federer, W., 1963. Experimental Design, Theory, and Application. Mac. Milan, New York.

Foye, O.T., Uni, Z., Ferket, P.R., 2006. Effect of in ovo feeding egg white protein, hydroxyl-methylbutyrate, and carbohydrates on glycogen status and neonatal growth of turkeys. Poult. Sci. 85(1): 1185-1192.

Geyra, A., Uni, Z., Sklan, D., 2001. Enterocyte dynamics and mucosal development in the posthatch chick. Poultry Science, 80(2): 776-782.

Hamdi, H., El-Ghareeb, A.W., Zaher, M., Abuamod, F., 2013. Anatomical, histological and histochemical adaptations of the avian alimentary canal to their food habits: II- Elanus caeruleus. IJSER. 4(10): 1355-1364.

Hasanzadeh, S., Monazzah, S., 2011. Gross morphology, histomorphology, and histomorphometry of the jejunum in the adult river buffalo. Iran. J. Vet. Res. 12(2): 99-106.

Ibrahim, S., 2008. Hubungan ukuran-ukuran usus halus dengan berat badan broiler. Agripet. 8(2): 42-46.

Kadhim, K.K., Bakar, M.Z.A., Noordin, M.M., Babjee, S.M.A., Saad, M.Z., (2014). Light and scanning electron microscopy of the small intestine of young Malaysian village chicken and commercial broiler. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 37(1): 51-64.

Kiernan, J.A., 1990. Histological and Histochemical Methods: Theory and Practice. 2 ͭ ͪ ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Korkmaz, D., Kum, S., 2016. A histological and histochemical study of the small intestine of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). J. Camel. Pract. Res. 23(1): 111-116.

Kornasio, R., Halevy, O., Kedar, Uni, Z., 2011. Effect of in ovo feeding and its interaction with timing of first feed on glycogen reserves, muscle growth, and body weight. Poult. Sci. 90(1): 1467-1477.

Lange, K., 2002. Role of microvillar cell surfaces in the regulation of glucoseuptake and organization of energy metabolism. Am. J. Physiol. Cell. 282: 1-26.

Lehninger, A.L., 1986. Principles of Biochemistry. Worth Publisher, Maryland.

Lenhardt, L., Mozes, S., 2003. Morphological and functional changes of the small intestine in growth-stunted broilers. Acta. Vet. Brno. 72: 353-358.

Lev, R., 1986. A histochemical study of glycogen and mucin in developing human foetal epithelia. Histochem. J. 1: 152-165.

Nasrin, M, Siddiqi, M.N.H., Masum, M.A., Wares, M.A., 2012. Gross and histological studies of digestive tract of broilers during postnatal growth and development. JBAU. 10: 69-77.

Nasution, A.F., Dihansih, S., Anggraeni, 2016. Pengaruh substitusi pakan komersil dengan tepung ampas kelapa terhadap sifat fisik dan organoleptik daging ayam kampung. J. Pertanian. 7: 14-22.

Ouellette, A., Satchell, D.P., Hsiech, M.M., Hagen, S.I., Selsted, S., 2000. Characterization of luminal Paneth cell a-defensins in mouse small intestine. J. Biol. Chem. 275(1): 33969-33973.

Rahmi, E., 2008. Distribusi glikogen pada lambung monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascricularis) selama periode sebelum dan setelah lahir. J. Ked. Hewan. 2(2): 176-184.

Rasyaf, M., 2011. Beternak Ayam Kampung. Penebar Swadaya, Depok.

Rodriques, M.N., Abreu, J.A.P., Tivane, C., Wagner, P.G., Campos, D.B., Guerra, R.R., Rici, R.E.G., Miglino, M.A., 2012. Microscopical study of the digestive tract of blue and yellow macaws. Science of Technol. 12(1): 414-421.

Safrida, 2012. Deteksi karbohidrat netral pada ovarium dan uterus tikus putih dengan pewarnaan periodic acid schiff (PAS). J. Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi. 4(1): 36-40.

Sajuti, R., 2001. Analisis agribisnis ayam buras melalui pendekatan fungsi keuntungan multi output kasus jawa timur. JAE. 19(2): 56-74.

Sarwono, S.R., Yudiarti, T., Suprijatna, E., 2012. Pengaruh pemberian probiotik terhadap trigliserida darah, lemak abdominal, bobot dan panjang saluran pencernaan ayam kampung. J. Animal Agriculture. 1(1): 157-167.

Southwell, B.R., 2006. Staging of intestinal development in the chick. Nat. Rec. Part A. 288A: 909-920.

Wahyuni, S., Agungpriyono, S., Agil, M., Yusuf, T.L., 2012. Histologi dan histomorfometri testis dan epididimis muncak (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak) pada periode ranggah keras. J. Veteriner. 13(3): 211-219.

Wahyuni, S., Zuchri, Hamny, Jalaluddin, M., Adnyane, I.K.M., 2015. Studi histokimia sebaran karbohidrat usus biawak air (Varanus salvator). Acta Veterinaria Indonesiana. 3(2): 77-84.

Wang, L., Zhang, C.Q., 2016. Identification of the Paneth cells in chicken small intestine. Poult. Sci. J. 95(1): 1631-1635.

Wangko, S., Karundeng, R., 2014. Komponen sel jaringan ikat. J. Biomedik, 6(3): 1-7.

Wells, J.M., Spence, J.R., 2014. How to make an intestine. Development. 10(1): 752-760.

Widodo, E., 2018. Ilmu Nutrisi Unggas. UB Press, Malang.

Zainuddin, Masyitha, D., Fitriani, Sarayulis, Jalaluddin, M., Rahmi, E., Idawati, 2016. Gambaran histologi kelenjar intestinal pada duodenum ayam kampung (Gallus gallus domesticus), merpati (Columba domesticus), dan bebek (Anser anser domesticus). JMV. 1(10): 9-11.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/agripet.v21i2.16012

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Agripet

License URL: http://www.jurnal.unsyiah.ac.id/agripet/about/submissions#copyrightNotice


Creative Commons LicenseISSN: 1411-4623E-ISSN: 2460-4534
Copyright© 2000-2021 | ISSN: 1411-4623 | EISSN: 2460-4534 
Jurnal Agripet is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

Published by: 
Animal Husbandry DepartmentThe Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University 
associated with Animal Scientist's Society of Indonesia (HILPI)
Jl. Tgk. Hasan Krueng Kalee No. 3, Kopelma Darussalam,
Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.
Phone: +62-81383736633
Email: jurnalagripet@unsyiah.ac.id


Online Submissions & Guidelines Editorial Policies | Contact Statistics Indexing | Citations