Karakteristik mutu dan keamanan ikan kembung (Rastrelliger sp) pada pasar domestik di DKI Jakarta

Resmi Rumenta Siregar, Sugeng Hari Wisodo, Tri Wiji Nuraini, Sugeng Heri Suseno

Abstract


Mackerel (Rastrelliger sp) is one of small pelagic fish that contribute animal protein intake for local community, so its quality and safety prior to be considered and maintained as follows. In this study analyzes the quality attribute and food safety of mackerel throughout the distribution chain for domestic consumption in Jakarta Province were investigated, from the fish landing, fish auction, wholesale markets, restaurants, supermarkets, until traditional markets. Field observations were used during the investigation, by taking mackerel samples at each distribution chain and testing at the laboratories. Quality characteristics were done by organoleptic test and formaldehyde content were showed the safety level of each samples. The organoleptic parameters revealed that from 100% of samples were taken from fish landing, wholesale market and restaurant comply with Indonesian National Standart, while at the supermarkets and at traditional markets was 77,42%, and 64,78% respectively. This consequently led to an increase of formaldehyde hazardous materials that exhibit during the distribution chain (4 samples from wholesale markets, 6 samples from supermarkets, and 57 samples from traditional markets). The concentrations of formaldehyde in the positive samples at three location mentioned above from 1.0-5.4 ppm, 2.5-6.6 ppm, and 0.2 - 13.4 ppm respectively. Mackerel collected from local markets had lower level of quality and safety compared to those from other locations. Monitoring of using formaldehyde for fresh fish during distribution and marketing need to be conserned.

Keywords:
domestic,
formaldehyde,
organoleptic,
Quality,
Rastrelliger sp.

ABSTRAK
Ikan kembung merupakan salah satu jenis ikan pelagis kecil yang banyak diminati oleh masyarakat DKI Jakarta sehingga mutu dan keamanannya menjadi salah satu prioritas penting yang perlu diperhatikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis mutu dan keamanan ikan kembung di sepanjang rantai distribusi untuk konsumsi domestik di wilayah Provinsi DKI Jakarta, mulai dari Pangkalan Pendaratan Ikan (PPI), Tempat Pelelangan Ikan (TPI), pasar grosir, restoran, pasar swalayan dan pasar tradisional. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah observasi lapang dengan melakukan pengambilan sampel ikan kembung pada setiap rantai distribusi dan pengujian di laboratorium. Karakteristik mutu diuji secara organoleptik dan keamanannya diuji dengan parameter kandungan formalin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase sampel yang memenuhi standar organoleptik (minimal 7) pada tahap pembongkaran, pasar grosir dan restoran adalah sebesar 100%, pada pasar swalayan dan pada pasar tradisional berturut-turut sebesar 77,42% dan 64,78%. Ikan kembung yang positif mengandung bahan berbahaya formalin masih ditemukan pada pasar grosir (4 sampel), dengan konsentrasi 2,5 – 6,6 ppm, pada pasar swalayan (6 sampel), dengan konsentrasi 1,0 – 5,4 ppm, dan pada pasar tradisional (57 sampel), dengan konsentrasi 0,2 – 13,4 ppm. Ikan kembung yang diambil dari pasar tradisional memiliki mutu dan keamanan yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan lokasi lainnya. Pengendalian terkait penggunaan bahan berbahaya formalin pada ikan segar selama distribusi dan pemasaran terutama pada pasar tradisional perlu ditingkatkan.

Kata kunci:
domestik,
formalin,
organoleptik, 
mutu, 
Rastrelliger sp.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.13170/depik.9.3.17542

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