Teori Maqâshid Al Syarî’ah dan Hubungannya dengan Metode Istinbath Hukum

Ali Mutakin

Abstract


Kemaslahatan sebagai inti dari maqâshid al-syarî‘ah, memiliki peranan penting dalam penentuan hukum Islam. Sebab hukum Islam diturunkan mempunyai tujuan untuk mewujudkan kemaslahatan umat baik di dunia maupun di akhirat. Dengan demikian sesungguhnya maqashid al-syarî‘ah memiliki hubungan yang sangat erat dengan metode istinbath hukum, dengan kata lain bahwa setiap metode istinbath hukum berdasar pada kemaslahatan. Adapun cara yang digunakan oleh para ulama dalam menggali kemaslahatan tersebut ada dua macam yakni: Pertama metode ta’liîlî (metode analisis substantif) yang meliputi qiyas dan istihsân. Kedua metode istishlâhî (metode analisis kemaslahatan) yang meliputi al-mashahah al-mursalah dan al-dharî’ah baik kategori sadd al-dzarî’ah maupun fath al-dzarî’ah.

 

The Theory of Maqâshid Al Syarî'ah and The Relation With Istinbath Method

 

 

The kindness (Maslahah) as the core of muqâshid al-syarî'ah, has an important role in determining Islamic law. The Islamic law is revealed to deliver the kindness for people, now and in hereafter. So, maqashid al-syarî'ah has a very strong relation with the istinbath method, in other words, every method of istinbath is based on kindness. There are two methods used by Islamic scholars (‘ulama) in searching for those kindness: Firstly is substantive analysis method (ta’liili method) which including qiyas and istihsan. The other method is by analysis of kindness (istishlâhî method) that use al-mashahah al-mursalah danal-dharî 'ah, either sadd al-dzarî'ah or fath al-dzarî'ah.


Keywords


maqashid al-syarî‘ah; metode ta’liîlî; metode istishlâhî; maqashid al-syarî'ah; ta'liîlî method; istishlâhî method.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/kanun.v19i3.7968

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