Positive politeness strategies during online learning: A cyberpragmatic study

Hari Kusmanto, Pratomo Widodo

Abstract


Language politeness and character education are crucial in the era of education disruption, particularly in terms of learning communication. Problems with language politeness happen when communication is mediated by electronic media, such as WhatsApp in particular, because it allows undergraduates to be more open in conveying their intentions, including to the lecturers regarding the learning goals. This study aims to describe the forms of language politeness during online learning in higher education. The study used a descriptive qualitative approach. The data of this study were utterances consisting of language politeness, and the data sources were undergraduates’ utterances to their lecturer. The data collection techniques were documenting, reading, and note-taking. The data were analyzed through referential identity, extra lingual interactive model, and politeness strategies proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) and Maricic (2000). Cyberpragmatic perspective perceives the positive politeness strategies with the help of external context, in this case, the virtual learning context, to find out whether there were positive politeness strategies in the utterances. The findings indicate that positive politeness strategies during online learning using cyberpragmatic approach are represented in six forms: paying attention, using identity markers, looking for agreement, avoiding conflict, creating humor, and showing an optimistic attitude. This study recommends that positive politeness strategies can be used as a pillar of developing and strengthening character education in learning, especially in universities.

Keywords


cyberpragmatics; language politeness; virtual external context

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alfiansyah, M. A., Wahya, & Sufyan, A. (2021). Analisis kesopanan tindak tutur direktif dalam pembelajaran daring: Kajian pragmatik [Politeness analysis of directive speech acts in online learning: Pragmatics study]. Literasi: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia, 11(2), 53–68. https://doi.org/10.23969/literasi.v11i2.3412

Balman, R. P., Lee, S., & Inoue, N. (2020). Request strategies in email communication: The case of Indonesian graduate students in Japan. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(2), 379–392. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v7i2.16806

Banegas, D. L. (2020). [Review of the book Qualitative research topics in language teacher education, by G. Barkhuizen]. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 43, 100826. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2019.100826

Basri, M. S., Safitri, H., & Hakim, M. N. (2021). Kesantunan berbahasa: Studi pada pembelajaran daring [Language politeness: A study in online learning]. Jurnal Onoma: Pendidikan, Bahasa, dan Sastra, 7(1), 242–248. https://doi.org/10.30605/onoma.v7i1.625

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge University Press.

Fedriani, C. (2019). A pragmatic reversal: Italian per favore ‘please’ and its variants between politeness and impoliteness. Journal of Pragmatics, 142, 233–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.09.008

Flores-Salgado, E., & Castineira-Benitez, T. A. (2018). The use of politeness in WhatsApp discourse and move ‘requests.’ Journal of Pragmatics, 133, 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.06.009

Halliday, M. A. K. (1975). Learning how to mean: Explorations in the development of language. Elsevier North-Holland.

Hendrastuti, R. (2017). Refleksi sikap dalam kesantunan tuturan cerpen anak [Attitude reflection in speech politeness in children short stories]. Sawerigading, 23(2), 229–239.

Jia, M., & Yang, G. (2021). Emancipating Chinese (im)politeness research: Looking back and looking forward. Lingua, 251, 103028. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2020.103028

Kim, H., Winter, B., & Brown, L. (2021). Beyond politeness markers: Multiple morphological and lexical differences index deferential meanings in Korean. Journal of Pragmatics, 182, 203–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.06.006

Kurniasih, N., Rahmansyah, S., & Kurnia N, I. (2019). Politeness strategy to prevent and resolve cyber-conflicts among Indonesian internet users: A cyberpragmatics approach. Humanus, 18(1), 68-79. https://doi.org/10.24036/humanus.v18i1.103049

Kusmanto, H., Ayu, N. P., Prayitno, H. J., Rahmawati, L. E., Pratiwi, D. R., & Santoso, T. (2020). Realisasi tindak kesantunan positif dalam wacana akademik di media sosial berperspektif humanitas [Positive politeness of academic discourse taking place in social media interaction: A humanity perspective]. Aksara, 32(2), 323–338. https://doi.org/10.29255/aksara.v32i2.454.323-338

Kusmanto, H., Prayitno, H. J., & Ngalim, A. (2019). Realisasi tindak kesantunan berbahasa pada komentar akun Instagram Jokowi: Studi polittikopragmatik [Realization of language courtesy on Jokowi’s Instagram account comments: Politicopragmatic study]. Jurnal Kandai, 15(1), 47–60.

Lee, J., & Lee, K. M. (2022). Polite speech strategies and their impact on drivers’ trust in autonomous vehicles. Computers in Human Behavior, 127, 107015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.107015

Leech, G. (2014). The pragmatics of politness. Oxford University Press.

Locher, M. A. (2013). [Review of chapter book Cyberpragmatics: Internet-mediated communication in context, by F. Yus]. Journal of Pragmatics, 47(1), 128–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.12.002

Maricic, I. (2000). Cyberpoliteness: Requesting strategies on the linguist list. Pragmatics in 2000: Selected papers from the 7th International Pragmatics Conference, 2, 409–416.

Maros, M., & Rosli, L. (2017). Politeness strategies in twitter updates of female English language studies Malaysian undergraduates. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature, 23(1), 132–149. https://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2017-2301-10

Mikheeva, M., Schneider, S., Beege, M., & Rey, G. D. (2019). Boundary conditions of the politeness effect in online mathematical learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 92, 419–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.11.028

Mirmanto, N., Prayitno, H. J., Sutopo, A., Rahmawati, L. E., & Widyasari, C. (2021). A shift in the politeness actions of grade 5 elementary school students with a Javanese cultural background. Pedagogia: Jurnal Pendidikan, 10(2), 89–99. https://doi.org/10.21070/pedagogia.v10i2.1006

Moodie, I. (2020). [Review of the book Qualitative research topics in language teacher education language teacher education, by G. Barkhuizen]. System, 90, 102239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102239

Murphy, J. (2021). [Review of the book Conversational humour and (im)politeness: A pragmatic analysis of social interaction, by V. Sinkeviciute]. Journal of Pragmatics, 183, 105–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.07.010

Onn, C. T., Tan, H., Abdullah, A. N., & Heng, C. S. (2018). A comparison of Malaysian ethnic and political stand-up comedies’ text structures and use of politeness strategies. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 7(7), 182–190. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.7n.7p.182

Pranowo. (2012). Berbahasa secara santun [Using language politely]. Pustaka Pelajar.

Prayitno, H. J., Kusmanto, H., Nasucha, Y., Rahmawati, L. E., Jamaluddin, N., Samsuddin, S., & Ilma, A. A. (2019). The politeness comments on the Indonesian President Jokowi Instagram official account viewed from politico pragmatics and the character education orientation in the disruption era. Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 1(2), 52–71. https://doi.org/10.23917/ijolae.v1i2.8785

Rahardi, R. K. (2016). Manifestasi wujud dan makna pragmatik kefatisan berbahasa dalam ranah pendidikan [Manifestation of form and pragmatic meaning of language apathy in the realm of education]. Adabiyyāt: Jurnal Bahasa Dan Sastra, 15(2), 226. https://doi.org/10.14421/ajbs.2016.15206

Rahardi, R. K. (2019). Mendeskripsi peran konteks pragmatik: Menuju perspektif cyberpragmatics [Describing the role of pragmatic contexts: Towards cyberpragmatics perspective]. Transformatika: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, dan Pengajarannya, 3(2), 164–178.

Rahardi, R. K. (2020). Building critical awareness of corona virus-related news: Cyber-pragmatic study of covid-19 hoaxes on social media. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(6), 5398–5409.

Savić, M. (2018). Lecturer perceptions of im/politeness and in/appropriateness in student e-mail requests: A Norwegian perspective. Journal of Pragmatics, 124, 52–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.12.005

Sudaryanto. (2015). Metode dan aneka teknik analisis bahasa: Pengantar penelitian wahana kebudayaan secara linguistik [Methods and techniques in language analysis: Introduction of linguistics culture methods]. Sanata Dharma University Press.

Sumarti, S., Sahayu, W., & Triyono, S. (2020). What is maaf for in the Indonesian language? A study of its use in written sources. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(2), 592–606. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v7i2.16637

Suntoro. (2018). Pelanggaran kesantunan berbahasa mahasiswa pada dosen dalam wacana komunikasi WhatsApp di STAB Negeri Sriwijaya Tangerang [Violation of students’ language politeness to their lecturers in WhatsApp communication at State Buddhism Higher Education of Sriwijaya Tangerang]. Jurnal Vijjacariya, 5(2), 79–92.

Terkourafi, M., & Bezuidenhout, A. (2021). Special issue: (Im)politeness, humour, and the role of intentions: Essays presented to Michael Haugh: Guest editors’ introduction. Journal of Pragmatics, 179, 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.05.015

Ulfa, M., Isda, I. D., & Purwati, P. (2018). The shift of Acehnese language: A sociolinguistic study to preserve regional languages. Studies in English Language and Education, 5(2), 161–174. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v5i2.8943

Widiarti, A. R., & Pulungan, R. (2020). A method for solving scriptio continua in Javanese manuscript transliteration. Heliyon, 6(4), e03827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03827

Yus, F. (2011). Cyberpragmatics. Internet-mediated communication in context. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Yus, F. (2016). Towards a cyberpragmatics of mobile instant messaging. In J. Romero-Trillo (Ed.), Yearbook of corpus linguistics and pragmatics 2016 (pp. 7–26). Springer.

Yus, F. (2019). Multimodality in memes: A cyberpragmatic approach. In P. Bou-Franch, & P. G. Blitvich (Eds.), Analyzing digital discourse (pp. 105–131). Springer.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v9i3.24021

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.