Nasal verbalization of the Kanayatn Dayak Language

Eusabinus Bunau

Abstract


This research aims to study the feature of nasals in the Kanayatn Dayak language, spoken in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and whether they are replacive or additive to particular initial phonemes of the root. The data were collected by recording and interviewing five informants of 45-55 years old native speakers of Kanayatn Dayak. Through the descriptive linguistics approach to describe the linguistic features of the nasals, this study revealed that the feature could be both replacive and additive, depending on the initial phoneme of the root word the nasals enter. These replacive and additive nasal verbalization processes function as class-maintaining and class-changing based on the root class to the nasals attached. As a replacive, the nasal verbalization process replaces the first phoneme of the root with nasals /m-/, /n-/, /ŋ-/, and nasal /ɲ-/. As additive verbalization, it is added to first phoneme of the root by employing allomorph /ma-/ and alternant /m-/, allomorph /am-/, allomorph /an-/ and alternant /n-/, and nasal /ŋ-/ and allomorph /ŋa-/. The replacive nasal verbalization makes the first phoneme of root covert. It is replaced with the replacive nasals. Then, the additive verbalization process maintains the first phoneme of the root staying overt. As a result, these additive nasals also create double homorganic-nasal oral consonants at the first phoneme of the verbs. The verbalization process involving additive allomorph only maintains the first phoneme of the root staying overt. In complex word formation, nasal verbalization creates active transitive and intransitive verbs.

Keywords


additive; morphology; Kanayatn; nasals; replacive; verbalization

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alexsander, A., Mardian, M., & Yanti, L. (2020). Proses morfologis bahasa Dayak Ba’Dameo di Kelurahan Pajintan Kecamatan Singkawang Timur [The process of morphology of Ba’Dameo Dayak in Kelurahan Panjintan, East Singkawang Subdistrict]. Cakrawala Linguista, 3(1), 37-48.

Al-Hamadi, H. M., & Salman, I. M. (2011). Morphophonemic interface in BBC English, and Basra Arabic: A case study of phonological conditioning. Journal of Basrah Researches, 36(4), 81-109.

Asmah, H. O. (2013). The Iban language of Sarawak: A grammatical description (Reprinted). Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Astonis, S. S., Simanjuntak, H., & Seli, S. (2018). Afikasi bahasa Dayak Kanayatn dalam Kitab Papakatatn Baharu [The affixation of Kanayatn Dayak language in the Papakatatn New Testament). Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa, 7(11), 1-12.

Batiukova, O. (2021). Derivation and category change. In A. Fábregas, V. Acedo-Matellán, G. Armstrong, M. C. Cuervo & I. P. Payet (Eds.)., The Routledge Handbook of Spanish morphology (pp. 209-221). Routledge.

Bunau, E. (2019). Morfologi bahasa Bidayuh-Somu Kabupaten Sanggau, Kalimantan Barat [The morphology of the Bidayuh-Somu language of District Sanggau, West Kalimantan, Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Malaya]. Malaysian Theses Online. http://myto.upm.edu.my/find/Record/um.u1127383

Bunau, E., & Yusof, R. M. (2018). Morpheme {buN-}: An example of morphological process through affixation in Bidayuh-Somu language. Lingua Cultura, 12(2), 203-208. https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v12i2.3962

Carstairs-McCarthy, A. (2016). What can linguistic typology contribute to research on language evolution? Linguistic Typology, 20(3), 569-578. https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2016-0028

Christianti, M. (2015). Kajian literatur perkembangan pengetahuan fonetik pada anak usia dini [The literature study on phonetical knowledge development of early childhood]. Jurnal Pendidikan Anak, 4(1), 530-537. https://doi.org/10.21831/jpa.v4i1.12339

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson Education.

Croft, W. (2003). Typology and universals (2nd ed). Cambridge University Press.

Daulay, S. H., & Niswa, K. (2021). Basic morphology. Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara Press.

Denistia, K., & Baayen, R. H. (2019). The Indonesian prefixes pe- and pen-: A study in productivity and allomorphy. Morphology, 29(3), 385-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-019-09340-7

Ethnologue. (2022). Kendayan. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. https://www.ethnologue.com/language/knx

Igartua, I. (2015). Diachronic effects of rhinoglottophilia, symmetries in sound change, and the curious case of Basque. Studies in Language, 39(3), 635-663. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.39.3.04iga

Jeremia, E., & Marsel, A. (2018). Kajian etno dan linguistik bahasa Dayak Kanayatn [Ethno and linguistic study of the Kanayatn Dayak language]. Institut Kajian Budaya Dayak Kanayatn.

Kracht, M. (2008). Introduction to linguistics. University of California Los Angeles.

Lansau, D., Handayani, R., Mangunsudarsono, J. B. D., Thomas, Y., Suyatman, H., & Pius, Y. Y. (1981). Struktur bahasa Kendayan. Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa.

Lehmann, C. (1982). Directions for interlinear morphemic translations. Folia Linguistica, 16, 199-224.

Leipzig Glossing Rules. (2015). Conventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses. Leipzig Glossing Rules. https://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/pdf/Glossing-Rules.pdf

Lieber, R. (2009). Morphology and lexical semantics. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics Series. Cambridge University Press.

Maddieson, I. (2005). Diversity of vowel systems. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117(4), 2398-2398. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4785970

Maltseva, A. A. (2018). Aspects of the use of predicative morphemes with a dropping vowel in the Koryak and Alutor languages. Sibirskii Filologicheskii Zhurnal, 2018(2), 227-243. https://doi.org/10.17223/18137083/63/20

Manova, S., Hammarström, H., Kastner, I., & Nie, Y. (2020). What is in a morpheme? Theoretical, experimental and computational approaches to the relation of meaning and form in morphology. Word Structure, 13(1), 1-17, https://doi.org/10.3366/word.2020.0157

Matthews, P. H. (2014). The concise Oxford dictionary of linguistics (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780199202720.001.0001

Mel’cuk, I. (2016). Language: From meaning to text. Academic Studies Press.

Meriana, Sulissusiawan, A., & Patriantoro. (2019). Verba pancaindra dalam bahasa Dayak Kanayatn [The verbal of senses in Kanayatn Dayak language]. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa, 8(3), 1-9.

Nakonechna, L. (2021). Language environment as a problem of scientific research in the context of teaching a future teacher to professional activity. Scientific Bulletin of Uzhhorod University. Series: Pedagogy. Social Work, 1(48), 289-292. https://doi.org/10.24144/2524-0609.2021.48.289-292

Noveliar, N., Sunarsih, E., & Oktaviai, W. (2019). Afiksasi bahasa Dayak Ahe pada cerita rakyat [The affixation of Ahe Dayak language found in folklores). Cakrawala Linguista, 2(2), 108-114.

Omar, A. H. (2014). Processing Malaysian indigenous languages: A focus on phonology and grammar. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 4(5), 728-738. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojml.2014.45063

Rolle, N. (2021). Against phonologically-optimizing suppletive allomorphy (posa) in Irish, Tiene, Katu, and Konni. Acta Linguistica Academica, 68(1-2), 103-138. https://doi.org/10.1556/2062.2021.00459

Santos, M. C. (2013). A simplified stem-based system description of Hiligaynon nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Philippine ESL Journal, 11, 138-159.

Sulastri, S. (2020). Relasi makna antonim verba bahasa Dayak Kanayatn Kalimantan Barat [The relation of meaning of verbal antonym of the Kanayatn Dayak language of West Kalimantan]. Medan Makna: Jurnal Ilmu Kebahasaan dan Kesastraan, 18(2), 150-160. https://doi.org/10.26499/mm.v18i2.2317

Yan, M. T., Isodarus, P. B., & Wardani, M. M. S. (2019). Imbuhan pembentuk kata kerja dalam bahasa Dayak Kenyah Bakung [Verb formation affixes in Kenyah Bakung Dayak language]. Sintesis, 13(2), 82-92.

Yudes, C., Domínguez, A., Cuetos, F., & de Vega, M. (2016). The time-course of processing of grammatical class and semantic attributes of words: Dissociation by means of ERP. Psicologica, 37(2), 105-126.

Yurchenko, O. (2021). Herder's opinion on language as a social phenomenon and an attribute of national identity. Humanities Science Current Issues, 3(40), 300-306. https://doi.org/10.24919/2308-4863/40-3-47




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v9i3.25324

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.